Page semi-protected

고대 로마

무료 백과 사전, 위키피디아에서
탐색으로 이동 검색으로 이동

고대 로마

로마
기원전 753 년 ~ 서기 476 년
Roman Republic Empire map.gif
로마 문명의 영토 :
자본로마 (그리고 후기 제국 시대의 다른 사람들, 특히 콘스탄티노플라벤나 )
공통 언어라틴어
정부왕국 (기원전 753 ~ 509)
공화국 (기원전 509 ~ 27 )
제국 (기원전 27 ~ 서기 476)
역사 시대고대 역사
기원전 753 년
기원전 509 년
• 옥타비아 어 선포 아우구스투스
기원전 27 년
476 년

에서 사료 편찬 , 고대 로마로마 의 이탈리아 도시의 창립에서 문명 로마 의 붕괴로 기원전 8 세기에 서로마 제국 포괄 5 세기 AD에, 로마 왕국 (753 BC-509 BC), 로마 공화국 (BC 509–27 BC) 및 로마 제국 (BC 27–476 AD)에서 서부 제국이 몰락 할 때까지. [1] 문명은 으로 시작 기울임 정착 이탈리아 반도, 전통적으로 기원전 753 년으로 거슬러 올라가는이 도시는 로마의 도시로 성장했으며 이후 로마가 통치 한 제국과 제국이 발전한 광범위한 문명에 이름을주었습니다. 문명은 로마인에 의해 주도되고 통치되었으며 , 번갈아 인종 그룹 또는 국적이라고 간주됩니다. 로마 제국 고대 세계 에서 가장 큰 제국 중 하나로 확장되었으며 , 인구는 5 천만에서 9 천만 명 (당시 세계 인구의 약 20 %)이고 면적은 5 백만 평방 킬로미터 (1.9)로 추정됩니다. 백만 평방 마일) 서기 117 년에 그 높이에서. [2] [3]

수세기 동안 존재 한 로마 국가는 선택 군주제 에서 민주적 인 고전 공화국으로 , 그리고 제국 기간 동안 점점 더 독재적인 반 선택적인 군사 독재로 발전했습니다 . 을 통해 정복 , 문화언어 적 동화 , 높이로는 제어 북아프리카의 해안, 이집트 , 남부 유럽 , 그리고 대부분의 서부 유럽발칸 반도 , 크림 반도 의 등 중동 지역 을 포함하여 아나톨리아를, Levant메소포타미아아라비아의 일부 . 그것은 종종 고대 그리스 와 함께 고전 고대로 분류되며 , 그들의 유사한 문화와 사회는 그레코-로마 세계 로 알려져 있습니다 .

고대 로마 문명은 현대 언어, 종교, 사회, 기술, 법, 정치, 정부, 전쟁, 예술, 문학, 건축 및 공학에 기여했습니다. 로마는 군대를 전문화하고 확장했으며 미국과 프랑스와 같은 현대 공화국 의 영감 res publica 라는 정부 시스템을 만들었습니다 . [4] [5] [6] 수로도로 의 광범위한 시스템을 건설하고 대형 기념물, 궁전 및 공공 시설을 건설하는 등 인상적인 기술건축 적 업적을 달성했습니다 .

카르타고포 에니 전쟁로마를 세계 강국 으로 세우는 데 결정적인 역할을했습니다 . 이 일련의 전쟁에서 로마는 코르시카, 사르디니아, 시칠리아의 전략적 섬을 장악했습니다. 히스 파니아 (현대 스페인과 포르투갈) 와 카르타고의 도시를 파괴 지중해에서 로마의 패권을주고, 146 BC에. 공화국이 끝날 무렵 (기원전 27 년), 로마는 지중해와 그 너머의 땅을 정복했습니다. 그 영토는 대서양에서 아라비아 로, 라인강 하구에서 북아프리카로 확장되었습니다. 로마 제국은 공화국의 종말과 아우구스투스 의 독재와 함께 등장했습니다 . 7 백 21 년로마-페르시아 전쟁 은 기원전 92 년 파르티아 와의 첫 투쟁으로 시작되었습니다 . 그것은 인류 역사상 가장 긴 갈등이 될 것이며 두 제국 모두에 중대한 영향과 결과를 가져올 것입니다.

Trajan 아래 제국은 영토 정점에 도달했습니다. 그것은 지중해 분지 전체 에서 북쪽의 북해 해변 , 동쪽 홍해카스피해 해안 까지 뻗어 있습니다 . 공화당 관습과 전통 은 제국 시대에 쇠퇴하기 시작했으며 내전은 새로운 황제의 등장에 공통된 전주곡이되었습니다. [7] [8] [9] 예로서 가시 상태, 팔미라 제국 일시적 동안 제국 나누는 것 3 세기의 위기 일부 안정성이 복원되기 전에 사두 정치 제국 통치의 단계.

내부 불안에 시달리고 및 공격 다양한 마이그레이션하는 사람들에 의해, 제국의 서쪽 부분은 헤어진 독립적으로 바바리안 왕국 5 세기한다. [a] 제국동부 지역은 서기 1453 년에 멸망 될 때까지 중세 시대에 걸쳐 권력을 유지했습니다 . [비]

건국 신화

에 따르면 건국 신화 로마의 도시 설립 된 강 유역에 4월 21일 753 BC에 테 베레 쌍둥이 형제, 중앙 이탈리아 로물루스와 레무스 으로부터 내려, 트로이 왕자 이네스 , [11] 누가 있었다 Alba Longa 의 라틴 왕 Numitor손자 . 누미 토르 왕은 그의 동생 아물 리우스에 의해 퇴위 당했고 누미 토르의 딸 레아 실비아 는 쌍둥이를 낳았습니다. [12] [13] 레아 실비아가 로마 전쟁의 신인 화성 에게 강간 당하고 수태 된 이후, 쌍둥이는 반 신성 으로 간주되었습니다 .

전설에 따르면 로마는 설립 하여 753 BC에 로물루스와 레무스 그녀 - 늑대에 의해 제기되었다,

새로운 왕 앰 율리우스는 로물루스와 레무스가 왕좌를 되 찾을 것을 두려워하여 익사 시키라고 명령했습니다. [13] 그녀 - 늑대 (또는 일부 계정에서 목자의 아내) 저장을 제기하고 오래된만큼이있을 때, 그들은 Numitor에 알바 롱가의 보좌를 반환했습니다. [14] [13]

쌍둥이는 자신의 도시를 세웠지 만 Romulus는 로마 왕국 의 위치에 대한 싸움에서 Remus를 죽 였지만 일부 소식통은 그 싸움이 누가 도시를 통치하거나 도시에 그의 이름을 부여할지에 관한 것이라고 말하고 있습니다. [15] 로물루스는 도시의 이름의 근원이되었다. [13] 도시로 사람들을 유치하기 위해, 로마 추방, 원치 않는, 빈민을위한 성소가되었다. 이것은 로마가 남성 인구가 많았지 만 여성을 빼앗겼다는 점에서 문제를 일으켰습니다. 로물루스는 이웃 마을과 부족을 방문하여 결혼 권을 확보하려고 시도했지만, 로마는 바람직하지 않은 사람들로 가득 차 있었기 때문에 거절당했습니다. 전설에 따르면 라틴 인들은 Sabines 를 축제에 초대 하고 미혼 처녀를 훔쳤다고합니다., 라틴 인과 Sabines의 통합으로 이어집니다. [16]

그리스 역사가 Halicarnassus의 Dionysius에 의해 기록 된 또 다른 전설 은 Aeneas 왕자가 트로이 전쟁 이 끝날 때 원본이 파괴 된 이후 새로운 트로이를 발견하기 위해 해상 항해에서 트로이 목마 무리를 이끌었다 고 말합니다 . 거친 바다에서 오랜 시간을 보낸 후 그들은 Tiber 강 유역에 상륙했습니다 . 그들이 착륙 한 지 얼마되지 않아 남자들은 다시 바다로 가고 싶었지만 함께 여행하던 여자들은 떠나고 싶지 않았습니다. 로마라는 한 여성은 그들이 떠나는 것을 막기 위해 배를 바다에서 태워 버리라고 제안했습니다. 처음에 남자들은 로마에게 화를 냈지만 곧 정착하기에 이상적인 장소에 있다는 것을 깨달았습니다. 그들은 그들의 배를 불태운 여성의 이름을 따서 정착지를 명명했습니다. [17]

로마의 시인 버질 은 그의 고전 서사시 Aeneid 에서이 전설에 대해 이야기했습니다 . 여기서 트로이 왕자 Aeneas 는 신들에게 새로운 트로이를 발견하게됩니다. 서사시에서 여성들도 바다로 돌아 가기를 거부했지만 Tiber에 남겨지지 않았습니다. 이탈리아에 도착한 후 Lavinia 와 결혼하기를 원했던 Aeneas 는 전 구혼자 인 Turnus 와 전쟁을해야했습니다 . 시에 따르면 알반 왕 은 Aeneas의 후손이므로 로마의 창시자 인 Romulus가 그의 후손이었습니다.

Byzantine EmpireWestern Roman EmpireRoman EmpireRoman RepublicRoman Kingdom

왕국

에트루리아 회화 ; 댄서와 음악가, 표범의 무덤 , 이탈리아 Tarquinia

로마시는 교통과 무역의 교차로 인 Tiber 강변의 포드 주변 정착지에서 성장했습니다 . [14] 고고 학적 증거 에 따르면 로마 마을은 기원전 8 세기 경에 세워졌을 것입니다. 그러나 이탈리아 라틴 부족일원에 의해 기원전 10 세기까지 거슬러 올라갈 수도 있습니다 . 팔라티노 언덕 . [18] [19]

에트루리아 이전에 북쪽에 정착했다 에트루리아은 , 귀족과 군주 엘리트를 형성, 후반 7 세기 BC에 의해이 지역의 정치적 통제를 설립 한 것으로 보인다. 에트루리아 인들은 기원전 6 세기 후반에 분명히 권력을 잃었고,이 시점에서 원래의 라틴계와 사빈 부족은 통치자들이 권력을 행사할 수있는 능력에 훨씬 더 많은 제한을 둔 공화국을 만들어 정부를 재창조했습니다. [20]

로마의 전통과 고고 학적 증거는 Forum Romanum 내의 복합물 이 왕의 권력의 자리이자 그곳의 종교 중심지의 시작임을 지적합니다. 로마 의 두 번째 왕인 누마 폼필 리우스 (Numa Pompilius)로물루스의 뒤를 이어 왕궁 인 레지 아 (Regia)베 스탈 처녀 들의 콤플렉스로 로마의 건축 프로젝트를 시작했습니다 .

공화국

이 흉상 로부터 카피 톨 박물관은 전통적으로 세로로 식별됩니다 루시우스 유니 우스 브루투스 , 로마의 청동 조각 후반 3 세기 BC에, 4

전통과 같은 나중에 작가에 따르면 리비 (Livy)로마 공화국은 509 BC 주위에 설립되었으며, [21] 로마의 일곱 왕의 마지막 때 자랑스런 Tarquin , 한 면직 에 의해 루시우스 유니 우스 브루투스 매년 선출을 기반으로 시스템 행정 장관 다양한 대표 집회가 설립되었습니다. [22]구성은 일련의 설정 견제힘의 분리 . 가장 중요한 치안 판사는 제국 과 같은 행정 권한을 함께 행사 한 영사 였습니다., 또는 군사 명령. [23] 영사 는 처음에는 귀족 또는 귀족 의 자문위원회였던 상원 의원 과 협력해야 했지만 규모와 권력이 커졌습니다. [24]

공화국의 다른 행정관에는 트리뷴 , quaestors , aediles , praetorscensors가 포함 됩니다. [25] 법정은 원래 귀족 에게만 제한 되었지만 나중에 일반인 또는 평민 에게 개방되었습니다 . [26] 공화당 투표 의회에는 전쟁과 평화 문제에 대해 투표하고 가장 중요한 공직에 남성을 선출 comitia centuriata (세기 의회)와 덜 중요한 공직을 선출 comitia tributa (부족 의회)가 포함되었습니다. [27]

기원전 400 년의 이탈리아 (오늘날 국경으로 정의 됨).

기원전 4 세기에 로마는 갈리아 인들의 공격을 받았으며 , 이제는 이탈리아 반도에서 포 계곡을 넘어 에트루리아를 통해 권력을 확장했습니다 . 16 년 7 월 390 BC, 부족 족장의 지도력 아래 갈리아 군대 Brennus은 , 로마인을 충족 북쪽 10 마일 로마의 Allia 강 유역에. Brennus는 로마인을 물리 치고 갈리아 인은 로마로 진군했습니다. 대부분의 로마인들은 도시를 떠났지만 일부는 최후의 입장을 위해 카피 톨 리노 언덕에 바리케이드를 쳤습니다. 갈리아 인들은 도시를 약탈하고 불태운 다음 카피 톨 리노 언덕을 포위했습니다. 포위 공격은 7 개월 동안 지속되었습니다. 갈리아 인들은 금 450 킬로그램의 대가로 로마인들에게 평화를 주기로 합의했습니다. [28]나중에 전설에 따르면, 무게 측정을 감독하는 로마인은 갈리아 사람들이 잘못된 저울을 사용하고 있음을 발견했습니다. 로마인들은 무기를 들고 갈리아 인을 무찔 렀습니다. 그들의 승리 장군 카밀 루스 는 "로마는 금이 아닌 철로 자유를 삽니다."라고 말했습니다. [29]

로마인들은 에트루리아 인을 포함한 이탈리아 반도의 다른 민족 들을 점차 정복 했습니다 . [30] 로마에 마지막 위협 헤게모니 때 이탈리아는 온 타렌툼 , 주요 그리스어 식민지의 도움 입대 피로스 281 BC에,하지만 이러한 노력뿐만 아니라 실패했습니다. [31] [30] 로마인들은 창립하여 정복을 확보 로마 식민지를 하여 그들이 정복 한 이탈리아의 영역 안정적인 제어를 구축, 전략적 분야에서. [30]

포 에니 전쟁

포 에니 전쟁 동안 로마와 카르타고의 소유 변경
  카르타고 소유물
  로마 소유물
로마에서 가장 유명한 포위 공격 중 하나는 기원전 133 년 Scipio Aemilianus현재 스페인 중북부 에있는 켈티 베리아누만 티아 요새였습니다. [32]
로마의 청동 흉상장로 스키피오 아프리카누스 로부터 나폴리 국립 고고학 박물관 (인보이스. 번호 5634),
날짜가 중반 1 세기 BC [33]
발굴에서 파피루스의 빌라 에서 미조리 에 의해 칼 야콥 웨버 , 1천7백50에서 65 사이 [34]

기원전 3 세기에 로마는 새롭고 강력한 상대 인 카르타고에 직면했습니다 . 카르타고는 지중해 지역을 장악하려고 했던 부유하고 번성하는 페니키아 도시 국가 였습니다. 두 도시는 두 도시 모두에게 위협이되었던 피르 후스 시대에 동맹국 이었지만 이탈리아 본토의 로마 헤게모니와 카르타고 탈라 소주의로 인해이 도시들은 서 지중해의 두 주요 강대국이되었고 지중해에 대한 분쟁으로 인해 분쟁이 발생했습니다. .

번째 포 에니 전쟁 은 기원전 264 년 메시나 시가 시러큐스의 히에로 2 세 와의 충돌에서 카르타고의 도움을 요청 했을 때 시작되었습니다 . 카르타고 중보 후, 메시나는 로마에 카르타고 인을 추방 해달라고 요청했습니다. 로마는 시러큐스 와 메시나가 새로 정복 된 그리스 남부 이탈리아 도시와 너무 가까웠고 카르타고는 이제 로마 영토를 공격 할 수 있었기 때문에이 전쟁에 뛰어 들었 습니다. 이와 함께 로마는 그 영역을 시칠리아 위로 확장 할 수 있습니다 . [35]

로마인들은 육지 전투에서 경험이 있었지만이 새로운 적을 물 리치려면 해전이 필요했습니다. 카르타고는 해상 강국이었으며 로마의 배와 해군 경험 부족으로 인해 로마 공화국 의 승리로가는 길은 길고 어려운 길 이었습니다. 그럼에도 불구하고 20 년이 넘는 전쟁 끝에 로마는 카르타고를 물리 치고 평화 조약을 체결했습니다. 제 2 차 포 에니 전쟁 [36] 의 이유 중에는 1 차 포 에니 전쟁이 끝날 때 카르타고가 획득 한 전쟁 배상금이있었습니다. [37]

제 2 차 포 에니 전쟁은 훌륭한 장군으로 유명합니다 : 포 에니 측 한니발하스 드루 발 ; Roman, Marcus Claudius Marcellus , Quintus Fabius Maximus VerrucosusPublius Cornelius Scipio . 로마는이 전쟁을 제 1 차 마케도니아 전쟁 과 동시에 싸웠다 . 전쟁은 1 차 포 에니 전쟁이 끝날 무렵 시칠리아에서 작전을 지휘했던 카르타고 장군 하밀 카르 바르카의 아들 한니발이 히스 파니아를 대담하게 침공하면서 시작되었습니다 . 한니발은 히스 파니아 를 거쳐 이탈리아 알프스빠르게 행진했습니다., 로마의 이탈리아 동맹들 사이에 공포를 불러 일으켰습니다. 이탈리아 인들이 로마를 버리게하려는 한니발의 목적을 무찌르는 가장 좋은 방법은 카르타고 인들을 게릴라 전쟁 으로 늦추는 것이 었습니다 .이 전략은 퀸 투스 파비우스 막시무스가 제안한 전략이며, 그는 Cunctator (라틴어로 " delayer ") 라는 별명을 붙 였습니다 . 전략은 파비안 (Fabian)으로 알려진 이후 영원히있을 것 입니다. 이로 인해 한니발의 목표는 달성되지 않았습니다. 그는 로마에 대항하여 반란을 일으키고 그의 감소하는 군대를 보충 할 충분한 이탈리아 도시를 가져올 수 없었고, 따라서 로마를 포위 할 기계와 인력이 부족했습니다.

하지만 한니발의 침공은 16 년 이상 지속되어 이탈리아를 황폐화 시켰습니다. 마지막으로 로마인들은 한니발의 보급품이 고갈 된 것을 감지했을 때 현대 스페인에서 한니발의 형제 하스 드루 발을 물리 친 스키피오를 보내 보호되지 않은 카르타고 배후지를 침공하고 한니발이 카르타고를 방어하기 위해 돌아 오도록했습니다. 그 결과 기원전 202 년 10 월에 유명한 결정적인 자마 전투에 의해 제 2 차 포 에니 전쟁이 종식되었으며,이 전쟁 은 스키피오에게 그의 무질서 인 아프리카누스 를주었습니다 . 로마는 막대한 비용을 들여 Scipio가 Hispania를 정복하고 Marcellus가 시칠리아에서 마지막 그리스 왕국 인 Syracuse를 정복하는 등 상당한 이익을 얻었습니다.

이 사건 이후 반세기가 넘게 카르타고는 굴욕을 당했고 로마는 더 이상 아프리카의 위협에 대해 걱정하지 않았습니다. 공화국의 초점은 이제 그리스 헬레니즘 왕국과 히스 파니아의 반란 에만 집중되었습니다 . 그러나 카르타고는 전쟁 배상금을 지불 한 후 로마 상원이 공유하지 않은 비전 인 로마에 대한 헌신과 복종이 중단되었다고 느꼈습니다 . 기원전 151 년 누미디아 가 카르타고를 침공 했을 때 카르타고는 로마 중보를 요청했습니다. 대사는 카르타고로 파견되었습니다. 그 중에는 Marcus Porcius Cato 가있었습니다 . 그는 카르타고가 복귀하여 그 중요성을 되 찾을 수 있다는 사실을 알고 주제가 무엇이든간에 모든 연설을 마쳤습니다. "Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam "("또한 카르타고가 파괴되어야한다고 생각합니다 ").

카르타고가 로마의 동의없이 누미디아와 싸웠 기 때문에 제 3 차 포 에니 전쟁 은 기원전 149 년 로마가 카르타고와의 전쟁을 선포하면서 시작되었습니다. 카르타고는 도시의 모든 주민들의 참여로 첫 번째 파업에서 잘 저항했습니다. 그러나 카르타고 는 도시와 성벽을 완전히 파괴하고 모든 시민을 노예로 매각하고 아프리카 의 영토가 된 그 지역을 장악 한 스키피오 아이 밀리아 누스 의 공격을 견딜 수 없었 습니다 . 따라서 포 에니 전쟁 기간이 끝났습니다. 이 모든 전쟁은 로마의 첫 해외 정복 (시칠리아, 히스 파니아, 아프리카)으로 이어졌고 로마가 중요한 제국 세력으로 부상하고 민주주의의 종말을 시작했습니다.[38] [39]

후기 공화국

기원전 2 세기에 마케도니아 제국셀레우코스 제국패배시킨 후 로마인지중해 의 지배자가되었습니다 . [40] [41] 헬라 정복 로마와 가까이 접촉 그리스 문화 로마 엘리트 가져 왕국 농촌되면, 고급스러운 국제적인 하나가되었다. 당시 로마는 군사적 관점에서 통합 된 제국이었으며 주요 적이 없었습니다.

로마 군대 를 극적으로 개혁 한 로마 장군이자 정치인 가이우스 마리우스

외국의 지배는 내부 분쟁으로 이어졌습니다. 상원 의원은 지방 의 비용으로 부자가되었습니다 . 대부분 소규모 농민이었던 군인들은 집에서 더 오래 떨어져 있었고 땅을 유지할 수 없었습니다. 그리고 외국인 노예 에 대한 의존도가 증가하고 라티 펀 디아 의 성장 은 유급 노동의 가용성을 감소 시켰 습니다. [42] [43]

전쟁 전리품, 새로운 지방의 중상주의 , 세금 농사 로 인한 수입은 부자들에게 새로운 경제적 기회를 창출 하여 승마 자라고 하는 새로운 상인을 형성했습니다 . [44] 렉스 클라우디아 이론적으로 상원에 가입 할 수있는 equestrians이, 그들은 심각한 정치 권력을 제한하고 그렇게하면서, 상업에 종사에서 상원의 금지 회원. [44] [45] 상원은 끊임없이 반복 중요한 차단 대격 토지 개혁을 정부에 승마 클래스에게 더 큰 발언권을 부여하지 않았다.

라이벌 상원 의원이 통제하는 도시 실업자의 폭력 갱단은 폭력을 통해 유권자를 위협했습니다. 이 상황은 BC 2 세기 후반 에 평민들 사이에 주요 귀족 토지를 재분배하는 농지 개혁 법안을 통과시키려는 한 쌍의 트리뷴Gracchi 형제 에 의해 정점 에 이르렀습니다 . 두 형제가 모두 죽었고 상원은 그라 치 형제의 행동을 뒤집는 개혁안을 통과 시켰습니다. [46] 이것은 평민 기 (분할의 증가되었다 populares ) 승마 클래스 ( 옵티마 테스 ).

마리우스와 술라

가이우스 마리우스 하는 노부스 호모 강력한의 도움으로 자신의 정치 경력을 시작, METELLI을 가족 곧 주장에 의해 107 BC에서 (전례가없는 수) 자신의 일곱 consulships의 첫 번째를 잡고, 공화국의 지도자가 그의 전 수호 퀸 투스 Caecilius Metellus Numidicus 는 Numidian 왕 Jugurtha 를 물리 치고 점령하지 못했습니다 . 마리우스는 그 후 군사 개혁을 시작했습니다. 유 구르 타와 싸우기위한 모집에서 그는 극빈자 (혁신)를 징집했고 많은 땅없는 사람들이 군대에 입대했습니다. 이것은 지휘하는 장군에 대한 군대의 충성을 확보하는 씨앗이었습니다.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla한때 귀족 가정 이었던 가난한 가정에서 태어났습니다 . 그는 좋은 교육을 받았지만 아버지가 죽고 유언을 남기지 않았을 때 가난 해졌습니다. Sulla는 극장에 합류하여 Jugurthine 전쟁 에서 장군이되기 전에 많은 친구를 찾았습니다 . [47]

이때 마리우스는 술라와 다투기 시작했다. 유 구르 타를 잡으려는 마리우스는 구르 타의 사위 보 쿠스 에게 그를 넘겨달라고 요청했다. 마리우스가 실패하자 그 당시 마리우스 장군 이었던 술라 는 위험한 사업에서 보 추스로 가서 보 추스에게 유 구르 타를 넘겨 주도록 설득했습니다. 많은 적들이 술라에게 마리우스를 반대하도록 장려했기 때문에 이것은 마리우스에게 매우 도발적이었습니다. 그럼에도 불구하고 마리우스는 기원전 104 년부터 100 년까지 5 회 연속 영사로 선출되었습니다 . 로마는 로마를 위협 하고 있던 브리토이 토 네스 를 물리 칠 군사 지도자가 필요했기 때문 입니다.

루시우스 코넬리우스 술라

마리우스가 은퇴 한 후 로마는 잠깐 평화를 누렸고 , 그 동안 이탈리아 사회 (라틴어로 "동맹")는 로마 시민권과 투표권을 요청했습니다. 개혁 마커스 리비우스 드러 서스는 자신의 법적 절차를 지원하지만, 암살, 그리고 socii는 의 로마에 대한 반란 사회 전쟁 . 어느 시점에서 두 영사 모두 살해당했습니다. Marius는 Lucius Julius Caesar 및 Sulla 와 함께 군대를 지휘하도록 임명되었습니다 . [48]

사회 전쟁이 끝날 무렵 마리우스와 술라는 로마에서 최고의 군인이되었고, 당파가 갈등을 빚어 양측이 권력을 쟁취했습니다. (88) BC에서 술라는 자신의 첫 번째 집정관 선출 그의 첫 임무는 패배였다 미트 리다 테스 VI폰투스 그 의도 로마 지역의 동부를 정복했다. 그러나 마리우스의 당파들은 설라와 상원을 무시하고 그의 군대를 지휘하여 설라의 분노를 일으켰다. 자신의 권력을 강화하기 위해 Sulla는 놀랍고 불법적 인 행동을 취했습니다. 그는 군대와 함께 로마행진 하여 마리우스의 대의를지지하는 모든 사람들을 죽이고 로마 포럼 에서 머리를 찔렀습니다.. 다음 해, 기원전 87 년, 술라의 행진에서 도망친 마리우스는 술라가 그리스에서 캠페인을 벌이는 동안 로마로 돌아 왔습니다. 그는 영사 Lucius Cornelius Cinna함께 권력을 장악 하고 다른 영사 Gnaeus Octavius를 살해하여 일곱 번째 영 사직을 달성했습니다. 술라의 분노를 불러 일으키기 위해 마리우스와 신나는 학살을 벌여 당파를 복수했다. [48] [49]

마리우스는 권력을 장악 한 지 불과 몇 달 만에 나이와 건강이 좋지 않아 기원전 86 년에 사망했습니다. Cinna는 BC 84 년 사망 할 때까지 절대 권력을 행사했습니다. 동부 캠페인에서 돌아온 설라는 자신의 힘을 회복 할 수있는 자유의 길을 가졌습니다. 기원전 83 년에 그는 로마에서 두 번째 행진을 하고 공포의 시대를 시작했습니다. 수천 명의 귀족, 기사, 상원 의원이 처형되었습니다. Sulla는 또한 두 번의 독재 정권 과 한 번 더 영 사직을 가졌으며 로마 공화국의 위기와 쇠퇴를 시작했습니다. [48]

카이사르와 최초의 삼인조

기원전 55 년 켄트에 로마인의 상륙 : 100 척의 배와 2 개의 군단이있는 Caesar는 아마도 Deal 근처에서 반대 상륙을했습니다 . 격렬한 반대에 맞서 약간 내륙으로 밀려 나고 폭풍으로 배를 잃은 후, 그는 영국 해협가로 질러 정찰 이던 갈리아로 돌아 갔고 , 다음 해에 더 심각한 침공을 위해 돌아 왔습니다 .

기원전 1 세기 중반에 로마의 정치는 불안했습니다. 로마의 정치적 분열은 두 개의 그룹으로 확인되었다 populares (사람들의 지원을 희망)와 옵티마 테스 (전용 귀족 통제를 유지하고 싶었다 "최고"). Sulla는 모든 포퓰리스트 지도자들을 전복 시켰고 그의 헌법 개혁 은 포퓰리스트 적 접근을지지했던 권력 (예를 들어 , plebs트리뷴의 권력)을 제거했습니다 . 한편, 사회적, 경제적 스트레스는 계속해서 형성되었습니다. 로마는 매우 부유 한 귀족, 부채에 휩싸인 지망자, 빈곤 한 농부들로 구성된 대규모 프롤레타리아트가있는 대도시가되었습니다. 후자 그룹은 지원 Catilinarian 음모 영사 때문에, 실패를 울려 퍼지는 -a를Marcus Tullius Cicero 는 음모의 주요 지도자를 신속하게 체포하고 처형했습니다.

이 격동적인 장면 에 제한된 부의 귀족 가정에서 Gaius Julius Caesar 가 등장했습니다 . 그의 숙모 Julia 는 Marius의 아내 였고 [50] Caesar는 대중과 동일시되었습니다. 권력을 얻기 위해 카이사르는 로마에서 가장 강력한 두 남자 인 마르쿠스 리 시니 우스 크라수스그의 딸 과 결혼 한 크라수스의 라이벌 인 그네 우스 폼페이우스 마그누스 (폼페이로 합작 화됨)를 화해시켰다 . 그는 자신을 포함한 새로운 비공식 동맹을 형성 먼저 삼두 정치( "세 남자"). 이것은 세 사람 모두의 이익을 만족 시켰습니다. 로마에서 가장 부자 인 크라수스는 더 부자가되었고 궁극적으로 높은 군사 명령을 달성했습니다. 폼페이는 상원에서 더 많은 영향력을 발휘했습니다. 그리고 Caesar는 갈리아 에서 영 사직과 군사 지휘권을 얻었습니다 . [51] 그래서 그들이 동의 할 수 있기 때문에, 세 가지 효과 로마의 통치자였다.

기원전 54 년, 카이사르의 딸인 폼페이의 아내가 출산 중 사망하여 동맹의 한 연결 고리를 풀었습니다. 기원전 53 년 Crassus는 Parthia를 침공하여 Carrhae 전투 에서 사망했습니다 . Crassus의 죽음으로 Triumvirate가 분해되었습니다. Crassus는 Caesar와 Pompey 사이의 중재자 역할을했으며, 그없이 두 장군은 권력을 위해 서로를 대항했습니다. 카이사르는 갈리아를 정복 하여 엄청난 부와 로마에서 존경심, 그리고 전투로 굳건한 군단의 충성을 얻었습니다. 그는 또한 Pompey에게 명백한 위협이되었고 많은 낙천 자들 에게 혐오감을 느꼈습니다 . 카이사르가 합법적 인 수단으로 막을 수 있다는 확신을 가진 폼페이의 일행은 카이사르의 재판, 빈곤 및 추방의 전주곡 인 카이사르의 군단을 박탈하려했습니다.

이 운명을 피하기 위해 카이사르 기원전 49 년에 루비콘 강을 건너 로마를 침공했습니다. 폼페이와 그의 일행은 카이사르가 쫓아 이탈리아에서 도망 쳤다. 파르 살루스 전투는 그가 모든 파괴 시저 및 이것과 다른 캠페인에서 빛나는 승리였다 옵티마 테스 ' 리더 : Metellus 스키피오 , 카토 이세을 , 그리고 폼페이의 아들, 나이 우스 폼페이우스. 폼페이는 기원전 48 년 이집트에서 살해당했습니다. 카이사르는 이제 많은 귀족들의 격렬한 적대감을 불러 일으켜 로마를 능가했습니다. 그는 많은 직책과 명예를 받았습니다. 단 5 년 만에 그는 4 개의 영 사직, 2 개의 일반 독재 정권, 2 개의 특별 독재 정권을 가졌습니다. 하나는 10 년 동안, 또 다른 하나는 영속성을위한 것입니다. 그는 BC 44 년 3 월 Ides 에서 해방자들에 의해 살해당했습니다 . [52]

옥타비안과 두 번째 삼중 체

악 티움 해전 으로, 카스트로 Laureys 1672 그린, 국립 해양 박물관, 런던

카이사르의 암살은 로마에서 정치적, 사회적 혼란을 일으켰습니다. 독재자의 지도력없이 도시는 그의 친구이자 동료 인 마커스 안토니우스에 의해 통치되었습니다 . 얼마 지나지 않아 카이사르가 자신의 뜻으로 입양 한 옥타비우스 가 로마에 도착했습니다. 옥타비안 (역사가 옥타비우스를 로마 명명 규칙 으로 인해 옥타비안으로 간주 함 )는 카 이사 리안 파벌에 자신을 맞추려고 노력했습니다. 기원전 43 년에 그는 카이사르의 가장 친한 친구 인 Antony와 Marcus Aemilius Lepidus 와 함께 [53] 두 번째 Triumvirate 를 합법적으로 설립했습니다 . 이 동맹은 5 년 동안 지속될 것입니다. 설립 당시 130 ~ 300 명의 상원 의원이 처형되었고 그들의 재산은해방자 . [54]

기원전 42 년 상원은 카이사르를 Divus Iulius신격화했습니다 . 따라서 옥타되었다 디비의 FILIUS , [55] 신격의 아들. 같은 해에, 옥타비아누스와 안토니우스는 카이사르의 암살자와의 지도자 모두 패배 Liberatores , 마르쿠스 유니 우스 브루투스가이우스 카시우스 롱기누스을 에, 빌립보의 전투 . 두 번째 삼두 정치는에 의해 표시되었다 금기 많은 상원 의원과의 에퀴 테스 : 안토니의 형제가 이끄는 반란 후 루시우스 안토니우스 , 300 명 이상의 상원 의원과 에퀴 테스 관련이 기념일에 실행 된Ides of March , 비록 루시우스가 살아 남았다. [56] 삼두 체제를 포함하여 여러 가지 중요한 사람, 추방 시세 안토니 미움; [57] 웅변가의 남동생 인 Quintus Tullius Cicero ; 그리고 유명한 장군의 사촌이자 친구 인 Lucius Julius Caesar 는 시세로를지지 해준 공로를 인정했습니다. 그러나 루시우스는 아마도 그의 여동생 줄리아가 그를 위해 개입했기 때문에 용서 받았습니다. [58]

Triumvirate는 제국을 triumvirs로 나누었습니다. Lepidus는 아프리카 , Antony, 동부 지방의 책임을 맡았고 Octavian은 이탈리아에 남아 히스 파니아갈리아를 통제했습니다 . 두 번째 Triumvirate는 기원전 38 년에 만료되었지만 5 년 더 갱신되었습니다. 그러나 Octavian과 Antony의 관계는 악화되었고 Lepidus는 시칠리아 에서 Octavian을 배신한 후 기원전 36 ​​년에 은퇴해야했습니다 . Triumvirate가 끝날 무렵, Antony는 Antony의 연인 인 Cleopatra VII가 통치하는 독립적이고 부유 한 왕국 인 Ptolemaic Egypt 에 살고있었습니다.. 안토니가 클레오 파트라와의 관계는 그녀가 다른 나라의 여왕 이었기 때문에 반역 행위로 간주되었습니다. 또한 Antony 는 로마 정치가에게는 너무 사치스럽고 헬레니즘으로 간주되는 라이프 스타일을 채택했습니다 . [59] 안토니의 다음 알렉산드리아의 기부 , 클레오 파트라에게 준 "의 제목 왕의 여왕을 새로 정복 동부 지역에 리갈 제목을", 그리고 안토니의와 클레오 파트라의 아이들에게, 옥타비아누스와 안토니우스 사이에 전쟁이 발발 . 기원전 31 년 악 티움 전투 에서 옥타비아 인은 이집트 군대를 몰살 시켰습니다 . Antony와 Cleopatra는 자살했습니다.. 이제 이집트는 로마 제국에 의해 정복되었고 로마인들에게는 새로운 시대가 시작되었습니다.

제국 – 원칙

기원전 27 년과 36 세의 나이에 옥타비안은 유일한 로마 지도자였습니다. 그해에 그는 Augustus 라는 이름을 사용했습니다 . 이 사건은 일반적으로 역사가들에 의해 로마 제국의 시작으로 받아 들여집니다. 비록 로마는 기원전 146 년부터 카르타고가 스키피오 아이 밀리아 누스에 의해 파괴되고 그리스가 루시우스 무미 우스에 의해 정복 되었을 때부터 "제국"국가 였지만 . 공식적으로 정부는 공화당 원 이었지만 아우구스투스는 절대 권력을 잡았다. [60] [61]정부의 개혁 구어체로 로마인 불리는 두 세기 기간 초래 팍스 로마나 .

Julio-Claudian 왕조

훌리오 - 클라우디우스의 왕조는 아우구스투스에 의해 설립되었습니다. 이 왕조의 황제는 아우구스투스 , 티 베리우스 , 칼리굴라 , 클라우디우스 , 네로 였다. 왕조는 아우구스투스의 가족 인 줄리아 (Julia )와 티 베리우스 (Tiberius)의 가족 인 클라우디아 (Claudia ) 로 인해 소위 불린다 . Julio-Claudians는 공화주의 가치의 파괴를 시작했지만 다른 한편으로 그들은 세계의 중심 세력으로서 로마의 지위를 높였습니다. [62]Caligula와 Nero는 일반적으로 대중 문화에서 역기능 황제로 기억되지만 Augustus와 Claudius는 정치와 군대에서 성공한 황제로 기억됩니다. 이 왕조는 로마에서 제국의 전통을 제정했으며 [63] 공화국을 재건하려는 시도를 좌절시켰다. [64]

아우구스투스

최초의 로마 황제 인 아우구스투스를 묘사 한 1 세기 프리마 포르타아우구스투스

아우구스투스는 자신의 공식 제목으로 거의 모든 공화당 힘을 모아 프린셉을 : 그는 영사의 힘이 있었다 프린셉 senatus는 , 조영관 , 검열트리뷴은 tribunician sacrosanctity -including합니다. [65] 이 황제 전원의 기본이었다. 아우구스투스는 또한 자신을 "신성화 된 자의 아들 가이우스 율리우스 카이사르 사령관"이라는 황제 가이우스 율리우스 카이사르 디비 필 리우스 ( Impertor Gaius Julius Caesar divi filius )로 표현했습니다. 이 칭호로 그는 Julius Caesar를 신격화하는 가족적인 연결 고리를 자랑했을뿐만 아니라 Imperator 의 사용은 로마의 승리 전통에 영구적 인 연결 고리를 나타 냈습니다 .

그는 또한 승마 계급 을 강화함으로써 정치에서 상원 계급의 영향력을 감소시켰다 . 상원 의원들은 이집트와 같은 특정 지방을 통치 할 권리를 잃었습니다. 그 지방의 주지사가 황제가 직접 지명했기 때문입니다. 근위병 의 창설 과 그의 군대 개혁 , 고정 된 크기의 28 개 군단을 가진 상비군 이 그의 군대에 대한 완전한 통제를 보장했습니다. [66] 번째 삼두 정치의 시대에 비해 같은 아우 '지배 프린셉은 매우 평화이었다. 이 평화와 풍요 로움 (이집트의 농경지가 부여한 것) [67]로마의 사람들과 귀족들은 아우구스투스가 정치 문제에서 힘을 키우도록 지원했습니다. [68] 군 액티비티 아우 전투에 존재했다. 그의 장군은 현장 지휘를 담당했습니다. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa , Nero Claudius DrususGermanicus 와 같은 사령관 은 대중과 군단으로부터 많은 존경을 받았습니다. 아우구스투스는 로마 제국을 알려진 전 세계로 확장하고자했으며, 그의 통치 기간에 로마는 칸타 브리아 , 아키텐 , 라에 티아 , 달마 티아 , 일 리리 쿰 , 파노 니아를 정복했습니다 . [69]

아우구스투스의 통치하에 로마 문학은 라틴 문학황금기 라고 알려진시기에 꾸준히 성장했습니다 . Virgil , Horace , OvidRufus같은 시인 은 풍부한 문학을 개발했으며 Augustus의 친한 친구였습니다. Maecenas 와 함께 그는 Virgil의 서사시 AeneidLivy 와 같은 역사 작품 으로 애국시를 자극했습니다 . 이 문학적 시대의 작품은 로마 시대를 거쳐 계속되었으며 고전입니다. 아우구스투스는 또한 카이사르가 추진 한 달력의 변화를 계속했고 8 월은 그 이름을 따서 명명되었습니다. [70]아우구스투스는 Pax Augusta 또는 Pax Romana 로 알려진 평화 롭고 번성하는 시대를 로마에 가져 왔습니다 . 아우구스투스는 서기 14 년에 죽었지 만 제국의 영광은 그의 시대 이후에도 계속되었습니다.

Tiberius에서 Nero로

아우구스투스 시대의 로마 제국의 범위. 노란색 범례는 기원전 31 년 공화국의 범위를 나타내고 녹색 음영은 아우구스투스 통치 기간에 점진적으로 점령 된 영토를 나타내며지도의 분홍색 영역은 고객 국가를 나타냅니다 . 여기에 표시된 로마의 통제하에있는 지역은 특히 게르마니아 에서 아우구스투스 통치 기간에도 변경 될 수 있습니다 .

Julio-Claudians는 아우구스투스가 죽은 후에도 계속 로마를 통치했으며 AD 68 년에 Nero가 죽을 때까지 권력을 유지했습니다. [71] 그의 조카 : 그 성공에 대한 아우구스투스 '즐겨 찾기 자신의 노화에 이미 죽은 마르첼로가 , 23 BC에서 죽은 그의 친구와 군 사령관 아그리파 (12) BC와 그의 손자 가이우스 카이사르 4 AD있다. 그의 아내 인 Livia Drusilla의 영향을 받아 아우구스투스는 다른 결혼에서 그녀의 아들 인 Tiberius 를 그의 상속인으로 임명했습니다 . [72]

상원은 승계에 동의하고, 티 베리우스 번 아우구스투스에게 부여 된 같은 제목과 명예에 부여 된 제목 프린셉페이터의 patriae시민 크라운 . 그러나 티 베리우스는 정치 문제에 열광하지 않았습니다. 상원과 합의한 후, 그는 AD 26 년 카프리은퇴하고 [73] 쁘 레토 리우스 지사 세 야누스 (서기 31 년까지) 의 손에 로마시의 통제권을 남겼습니다. 매크로 (서기 31 ~ 37 년). 티 베리우스는 사악하고 우울한 그의 친척의 살해를 지시 한 수 있습니다 사람, 인기 일반적으로 간주되었다 게르 마니 커스 (19) AD에서, [74] 그 자신의 아들서기 23 년의 Drusus Julius Caesar . [74]

Tiberius는 AD 37 년에 사망 (또는 사망)했습니다 [74] . Julio-Claudians의 남성 계열은 Tiberius의 조카 Claudius , 그의 손자 Tiberius Gemellus 및 그의 조카 Caligula로 제한되었습니다 . Gemellus가 아직 어 렸기 때문에 Caligula는 제국을 통치하기 위해 선택되었습니다. 그는 통치 초기에 인기있는 지도자 였지만, 정부를 장악 한 해에는 조잡하고 미친 폭군이되었습니다. [75] [76] 에 토니 우스는 자신이 저지른 상태 근친상간을 , 그의 누이와 단지 놀이에 대한 몇 가지 사람들을 죽이고 지명 말을 집정관을 위해. [77] 집정관 가드는 4 년 티 베리우스의 죽음 후에 칼리굴라 살해[78] 과는 상원 의원의 뒤늦은 지원, 그의 삼촌 선포 클라우디우스를 새로운 황제로. [79] 클라우는 베리우스 칼리굴라와 같은 권위로하지 않았다. Claudius는 Lycia Thrace를 정복했습니다; 그의 가장 중요한 업적은 브리타니아 정복의 시작이었습니다. [80] 클라우디우스는 그의 아내에 의해 독살 된 아그리피나 더 젊은 54 AD있다. [81] 그의 후계자였다 네로 클라우디우스 '아들 때문에, 아그리피나와 그녀의 전 남편의 아들, 브리타니 커스가 자신의 아버지의 죽음에 따라 성년에 도달하지 않았다.

Nero는 그의 장군 인 Suetonius Paulinus를 파견 하여 현대 웨일즈 를 침공 했고 그곳에서 강한 저항에 부딪 혔습니다. 현대 웨일즈 켈트족 은 독립적이고 강인하며 세리에 저항했으며 Paulinus와 싸웠습니다. 그는 북서부 해안에 도달하는 데 오랜 시간이 걸렸고 AD 60 년에 마침내 메나이 해협건너 드루이드 의 마지막 요새 인 모나 (현대의 앵글시 ) 의 신성한 섬 으로갔습니다 . [82] 그의 병사 들은 섬을 공격하고 드루이드, 남자, 여자, 아이들을 학살하고 [83] 신사와 신성한 숲을 파괴했습니다. and threw many of the sacred standing stones into the sea. While Paulinus and his troops were massacring Druids in Mona, the tribes of modern-day East Anglia staged a revolt led by queen Boadicea of the Iceni.[84] The rebels sacked and burned Camulodunum, Londinium and Verulamium (modern-day Colchester, London and St Albans respectively) before they were crushed by Paulinus.[85] Boadicea, like Cleopatra before her, committed suicide to avoid the disgrace of being paraded in triumph in Rome.[86] The fault of Nero in this rebellion is debatable but there was certainly an impact (both positive and negative) upon the prestige of his regime.[citation needed]

Nero is widely known as the first persecutor of Christians and for the Great Fire of Rome, rumoured to have been started by the emperor himself.[87][88] In 59 AD he murdered his mother and in 62 AD, his wife Claudia Octavia. Never very stable, he allowed his advisers to run the government while he slid into debauchery, excess, and madness. He was married three times, and had numerous affairs with both men and women, and, according to some rumors, even his mother. A conspiracy against Nero in 65 AD under Calpurnius Piso failed, but in 68 AD the armies under Julius Vindex in Gaul and Servius Sulpicius Galba in modern-day Spain revolted. Deserted by the Praetorian Guards and condemned to death by the senate, Nero killed himself.[89]

Flavian dynasty

Bust of Vespasian, founder of the Flavian dynasty

The Flavians were the second dynasty to rule Rome.[90] By 68 AD, year of Nero's death, there was no chance of return to the old and traditional Roman Republic, thus a new emperor had to rise. After the turmoil in the Year of the Four Emperors, Titus Flavius Vespasianus (anglicized as Vespasian) took control of the Empire and established a new dynasty. Under the Flavians, Rome continued its expansion, and the state remained secure.[91][92]

The most significant military campaign undertaken during the Flavian period, was the siege and destruction of Jerusalem in 70 by Titus. The destruction of the city was the culmination of the Roman campaign in Judea following the Jewish uprising of 66. The Second Temple was completely demolished, after which Titus's soldiers proclaimed him imperator in honor of the victory. Jerusalem was sacked and much of the population killed or dispersed. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, of which a majority were Jewish.[93] 97,000 were captured and enslaved, including Simon bar Giora and John of Giscala. Many fled to areas around the Mediterranean. Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, as there is "no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God".

Vespasian

Vespasian was a general under Claudius and Nero. He fought as a commander in the First Jewish-Roman War along with his son Titus. Following the turmoil of the Year of the Four Emperors, in 69 AD, four emperors were enthroned: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and, lastly, Vespasian, who crushed Vitellius' forces and became emperor.[94] He reconstructed many buildings which were uncompleted, like a statue of Apollo and the temple of Divus Claudius ("the deified Claudius"), both initiated by Nero. Buildings once destroyed by the Great Fire of Rome were rebuilt, and he revitalized the Capitol. Vespasian also started the construction of the Flavian Amphitheater, more commonly known as the Colosseum.[95] The historians Josephus and Pliny the Elder wrote their works during Vespasian's reign. Vespasian was Josephus' sponsor and Pliny dedicated his Naturalis Historia to Titus, son of Vespasian. Vespasian sent legions to defend the eastern frontier in Cappadocia, extended the occupation in Britannia (modern-day England, Wales and southern Scotland) and reformed the tax system. He died in 79 AD.

Titus and Domitian

Titus had a short-lived rule; he was emperor from 79 to 81 AD. He finished the Flavian Amphitheater, which was constructed with war spoils from the First Jewish-Roman War, and promoted games celebrating the victory over the Jews that lasted for a hundred days. These games included gladiatorial combats, chariot races and a sensational mock naval battle on the flooded grounds of the Colosseum.[96][97] Titus died of fever in 81 AD, and was succeeded by his brother Domitian. As emperor, Domitian assumed totalitarian characteristics,[98] thought he could be a new Augustus, and tried to make a personal cult of himself. Domitian ruled for fifteen years, and his reign was marked by his attempts to compare himself to the gods. He constructed at least two temples in honour of Jupiter, the supreme deity in Roman religion. He also liked to be called "Dominus et Deus" ("Master and God").[99]

Nerva–Antonine dynasty

The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan in AD 117

The Nerva–Antonine dynasty from 96 AD to 192 AD was the rule of the emperors Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus. During their rule, Rome reached its territorial and economical apogee.[100] This was a time of peace for Rome. The criteria for choosing an emperor were the qualities of the candidate and no longer ties of kinship; additionally, there were no civil wars or military defeats in this period. Following Domitian's murder, the Senate rapidly appointed Nerva to hold imperial dignity. This was the first time that senators chose the emperor since Octavian was honored with the titles of princeps and Augustus. Nerva had a noble ancestry, and he had served as an advisor to Nero and the Flavians. His rule restored many of the liberties once assumed by Domitian[101] and started the last golden era of Rome.

Trajan

The Justice of Trajan (fragment) by Eugène Delacroix

Nerva died in 98 AD and his successor and heir was the general Trajan. Trajan was born in a non-patrician family from Hispania Baetica (modern-day Andalusia) and his preeminence emerged in the army, under Domitian. He is the second of the Five Good Emperors, the first being Nerva. Trajan was greeted by the people of Rome with enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian's reign. He freed many people who had been unjustly imprisoned by Domitian and returned private property that Domitian had confiscated; a process begun by Nerva before his death.[102]

Trajan conquered Dacia (roughly modern-day Romania and Moldova), and defeated the king Decebalus, who had defeated Domitian's forces. In the First Dacian War (101–102), the defeated Dacia became a client kingdom; in the Second Dacian War (105–106), Trajan completely devastated the enemy's resistance and annexed Dacia to the Empire. Trajan also annexed the client state of Nabatea to form the province of Arabia Petraea, which included the lands of southern Syria and northwestern Arabia.[103] He erected many buildings that survive to this day, such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. His main architect was Apollodorus of Damascus; Apollodorus made the project of the Forum and of the Column, and also reformed the Pantheon. Trajan's triumphal arches in Ancona and Beneventum are other constructions projected by him. In the Second Dacian War, Apollodorus made a great bridge over the Danube for Trajan.[104]

Trajan's final war was against Parthia. When Parthia appointed a king for Armenia who was unacceptable to Rome (Parthia and Rome shared dominance over Armenia), he declared war. He probably wanted to be the first Roman leader to conquer Parthia, and repeat the glory of Alexander the Great, conqueror of Asia, whom Trajan next followed in the clash of Greek-Romans and the Persian cultures.[105] In 113 he marched to Armenia and deposed the local king. In 115 Trajan turned south into the core of Parthian hegemony, took the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis and Batnae, organized a province of Mesopotamia (116), and issued coins announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia was under the authority of the Roman people.[106] In that same year, he captured Seleucia and the Parthian capital Ctesiphon (near modern Baghdad).[107] After defeating a Parthian revolt and a Jewish revolt, he withdrew due to health issues. In 117, his illness grew and he died of edema. He nominated Hadrian as his heir. Under Trajan's leadership the Roman Empire reached the peak of its territorial expansion;[108] Rome's dominion now spanned 5.0 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles).[3]

From Hadrian to Commodus

Map showing the location of Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall in Scotland and Northern England

Many Romans emigrated to Hispania (modern-day Spain and Portugal) and stayed for generations, in some cases intermarrying with Iberians; one of these families produced the emperor Hadrian.[109] Hadrian withdrew all the troops stationed in Parthia, Armenia and Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), abandoning Trajan's conquests. Hadrian's army crushed a revolt in Mauretania and the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judea. This was the last large-scale Jewish revolt against the Romans, and was suppressed with massive repercussions in Judea. Hundreds of thousands of Jews were killed. Hadrian renamed the province of Judea "Provincia Syria Palaestina," after one of Judea's most hated enemies.[110] He constructed fortifications and walls, like the celebrated Hadrian's Wall which separated Roman Britannia and the tribes of modern-day Scotland. Hadrian promoted culture, especially the Greek. He also forbade torture and humanized the laws. His many building projects included aqueducts, baths, libraries and theaters; additionally, he travelled nearly every province in the Empire to check the military and infrastructural conditions.[111] Following Hadrian's death in 138 AD, his successor Antoninus Pius built temples, theaters, and mausoleums, promoted the arts and sciences, and bestowed honours and financial rewards upon the teachers of rhetoric and philosophy. On becoming emperor, Antoninus made few initial changes, leaving intact as far as possible the arrangements instituted by his predecessor. Antoninus expanded Roman Britannia by invading what is now southern Scotland and building the Antonine Wall.[112] He also continued Hadrian's policy of humanizing the laws. He died in 161 AD.

The Pantheon, Rome, built during the reign of Hadrian, which still contains the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world

Marcus Aurelius, known as the Philosopher, was the last of the Five Good Emperors. He was a stoic philosopher and wrote the Meditations. He defeated barbarian tribes in the Marcomannic Wars as well as the Parthian Empire.[113] His co-emperor, Lucius Verus died in 169 AD, probably victim of the Antonine Plague, a pandemic that killed nearly five million people through the Empire in 165–180 AD.[114]

From Nerva to Marcus Aurelius, the empire achieved an unprecedented status. The powerful influence of laws and manners had gradually cemented the union of the provinces. All the citizens enjoyed and abused the advantages of wealth. The image of a free constitution was preserved with decent reverence. The Roman senate appeared to possess the sovereign authority, and devolved on the emperors all the executive powers of government.[clarification needed] The Five Good Emperors' rule is considered the golden era of the Empire.[115]

Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius, became emperor after his father's death. He is not counted as one of the Five Good Emperors. Firstly, this was due to his direct kinship with the latter emperor; in addition, he was militarily passive compared to his predecessors, who had frequently led their armies in person. Commodus usually participated in gladiatorial combats, which were frequently brutal and rough. He killed many citizens, and Cassius Dio identifies his reign as the beginning of Roman decadence: "(Rome has transformed) from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust."[116]

Severan dynasty

Commodus was killed by a conspiracy involving Quintus Aemilius Laetus and his wife Marcia in late 192 AD. The following year is known as the Year of the Five Emperors, during which Helvius Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus and Septimius Severus held the imperial dignity. Pertinax, a member of the senate who had been one of Marcus Aurelius's right hand men, was the choice of Laetus, and he ruled vigorously and judiciously. Laetus soon became jealous and instigated Pertinax's murder by the Praetorian Guard, who then auctioned the empire to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, for 25,000 sesterces per man.[117] The people of Rome were appalled and appealed to the frontier legions to save them. The legions of three frontier provinces—Britannia, Pannonia Superior, and Syria—resented being excluded from the "donative" and replied by declaring their individual generals to be emperor. Lucius Septimius Severus Geta, the Pannonian commander, bribed the opposing forces, pardoned the Praetorian Guards and installed himself as emperor. He and his successors governed with the legions' support. The changes on coinage and military expenditures were the root of the financial crisis that marked the Crisis of the Third Century.

Septimius Severus

The Severan Tondo, c. 199, Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla and Geta, whose face is erased

Severus was enthroned after invading Rome and having Didius Julianus killed. His two other rivals, Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus, were both were hailed by other factions as Imperator. Severus quickly subdued Niger in Byzantium and promised to Albinus the title of Caesar (which meant he would be a co-emperor).[118] However, Severus betrayed Albinus by blaming him for a plot against his life. Severus marched to Gaul and defeated Albinus. For these acts, Machiavelli said that Severus was "a ferocious lion and a clever fox"[119]

Severus attempted to revive totalitarianism and, addressing the Roman people and Senate, praised the severity and cruelty of Marius and Sulla, which worried the senators.[120] When Parthia invaded Roman territory, Severus waged war against that country and seized the cities of Nisibis, Babylon and Seleucia. Reaching Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital, he ordered plundering and his army slew and captured many people. Notwithstanding this military success, Severus failed in invading Hatra, a rich Arabian city. Severus killed his legate, who was gaining respect from the legions; and his soldiers fell victim to famine. After this disastrous campaign, he withdrew.[121] Severus also intended to vanquish the whole of Britannia. To achieve this, he waged war against the Caledonians. After many casualties in the army due to the terrain and the barbarians' ambushes, Severus himself went to the field. However, he became ill and died in 211 AD, at the age of 65.

From Caracalla to Alexander Severus

Bust of Caracalla from the Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Upon the death of Severus, his sons Caracalla and Geta were made emperors. During their youth, their squabbles had divided Rome. In that same year Caracalla had his brother, a youth, assassinated in his mother's arms, and may have murdered 20,000 of Geta's followers. Like his father, Caracalla was warlike. He continued Severus' policy and gained respect from the legions. A cruel man, Caracalla was pursued by the guilt of his brother's murder. He ordered the death of people of his own circle, like his tutor, Cilo, and a friend of his father, Papinian.

Knowing that the citizens of Alexandria disliked him and were denigrating his character, Caracalla served a banquet for its notable citizens, after which his soldiers killed all the guests. From the security of the temple of Sarapis, he then directed an indiscriminate slaughter of Alexandria's people.[122][123] In 212, he issued the Edict of Caracalla, giving full Roman citizenship to all free men living in the Empire, with the exception of the dediticii, people who had become subject to Rome through surrender in war, and freed slaves.[124] and at the same time raised the inheritance tax, levied only on Roman citizens, to ten percent. A report that a soothsayer had predicted that the Praetorian prefect Macrinus and his son were to rule over the empire was dutifully sent to Caracalla. But the report fell into the hands of Macrinus, who felt he must act or die. Macrinus conspired to have Caracalla assassinated by one of his soldiers during a pilgrimage to the Temple of the Moon in Carrhae, in 217 AD.

The incompetent Macrinus assumed power, but soon removed himself from Rome to the east and Antioch. His brief reign ended in 218, when the youngster Bassianus, high priest of the temple of the Sun at Emesa, and supposedly illegitimate son of Caracalla, was declared Emperor by the disaffected soldiers of Macrinus. Bribes gained Bassianus support from the legionaries and they fought against Macrinus and his Praetorian guards. He adopted the name of Antoninus but history has named him after his Sun god Elagabalus, represented on Earth in the form of a large black stone. An incompetent and lascivious ruler,[38] Elagabalus offended all but his favourites. Cassius Dio, Herodian and the Historia Augusta give many accounts of his notorious extravagance. Elagabalus adopted his cousin Alexander Severus, as Caesar, but subsequently grew jealous and attempted to assassinate him. However, the Praetorian guard preferred Alexander, murdered Elagabalus, dragged his mutilated corpse through the streets of Rome, and threw it into the Tiber. Alexander Severus then succeeded him. Alexander waged war against many foes, including the revitalized Persia and also the Germanic peoples, who invaded Gaul. His losses generated dissatisfaction among his soldiers, and some of them murdered him during his Germanic campaign in 235 AD.[125]

Crisis of the Third Century

The Roman Empire suffered internal schisms, forming the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire

A disastrous scenario emerged after the death of Alexander Severus: the Roman state was plagued by civil wars, external invasions, political chaos, pandemics and economic depression.[126][38] The old Roman values had fallen, and Mithraism and Christianity had begun to spread through the populace. Emperors were no longer men linked with nobility; they usually were born in lower-classes of distant parts of the Empire. These men rose to prominence through military ranks, and became emperors through civil wars.

There were 26 emperors in a 49-year period, a signal of political instability. Maximinus Thrax was the first ruler of that time, governing for just three years. Others ruled just for a few months, like Gordian I, Gordian II, Balbinus and Hostilian. The population and the frontiers were abandoned, since the emperors were mostly concerned with defeating rivals and establishing their power. The economy also suffered during that epoch. The massive military expenditures from the Severi caused a devaluation of Roman coins. Hyperinflation came at this time as well. The Plague of Cyprian broke out in 250 and killed a huge portion of the population.[127] In 260 AD, the provinces of Syria Palaestina, Asia Minor and Egypt separated from the rest of the Roman state to form the Palmyrene Empire, ruled by Queen Zenobia and centered on Palmyra. In that same year the Gallic Empire was created by Postumus, retaining Britannia and Gaul.[128] These countries separated from Rome after the capture of emperor Valerian by the Sassanids of Persia, the first Roman ruler to be captured by his enemies; it was a humiliating fact for the Romans.[127] The crisis began to recede during the reigns of Claudius Gothicus (268–270), who defeated the Gothic invaders, and Aurelian (271–275), who reconquered both the Gallic and Palmyrene Empires.[129][130] The crisis was overcome during the reign of Diocletian.

Empire – The Tetrarchy

Diocletian

A Roman follis depicting the profile of Diocletian

In 284 AD, Diocletian was hailed as Imperator by the eastern army. Diocletian healed the empire from the crisis, by political and economic shifts. A new form of government was established: the Tetrarchy. The Empire was divided among four emperors, two in the West and two in the East. The first tetrarchs were Diocletian (in the East), Maximian (in the West), and two junior emperors, Galerius (in the East) and Flavius Constantius (in the West). To adjust the economy, Diocletian made several tax reforms.[131]

Diocletian expelled the Persians who plundered Syria and conquered some barbarian tribes with Maximian. He adopted many behaviors of Eastern monarchs, like wearing pearls and golden sandals and robes. Anyone in the presence of the emperor had now to prostrate himself—a common act in the East, but never practiced in Rome before.[132] Diocletian did not use a disguised form of Republic, as the other emperors since Augustus had done.[133] Between 290 and 330, half a dozen new capitals had been established by the members of the Tetrarchy, officially or not: Antioch, Nicomedia, Thessalonike, Sirmium, Milan, and Trier.[134] Diocletian was also responsible for a significant Christian persecution. In 303 he and Galerius started the persecution and ordered the destruction of all the Christian churches and scripts and forbade Christian worship.[135] Diocletian abdicated in 305 AD together with Maximian, thus, he was the first Roman emperor to resign. His reign ended the traditional form of imperial rule, the Principate (from princeps) and started the Tetrarchy.

The Aula Palatina of Trier, Germany (then part of the Roman province of Gallia Belgica), a Christian basilica built during the reign of Constantine I (r. 306–337 AD)

Constantine and Christianity

Constantine assumed the empire as a tetrarch in 306. He conducted many wars against the other tetrarchs. Firstly he defeated Maxentius in 312. In 313, he issued the Edict of Milan, which granted liberty for Christians to profess their religion.[136] Constantine was converted to Christianity, enforcing the Christian faith. He began the Christianization of the Empire and of Europe—a process concluded by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages. He was defeated by the Franks and the Alamanni during 306–308. In 324 he defeated another tetrarch, Licinius, and controlled all the empire, as it was before Diocletian. To celebrate his victories and Christianity's relevance, he rebuilt Byzantium and renamed it Nova Roma ("New Rome"); but the city soon gained the informal name of Constantinople ("City of Constantine").[137][138]

The reign of Julian, who under the influence of his adviser Mardonius attempted to restore Classical Roman and Hellenistic religion, only briefly interrupted the succession of Christian emperors. Constantinople served as a new capital for the Empire. In fact, Rome had lost its central importance since the Crisis of the Third Century—Mediolanum was the western capital from 286 to 330, until the reign of Honorius, when Ravenna was made capital, in the 5th century.[139] Constantine's administrative and monetary reforms, that reunited the Empire under one emperor, and rebuilt the city of Byzantium changed the high period of the ancient world.

Fall of the Western Roman Empire

In the late 4th and 5th centuries the Western Empire entered a critical stage which terminated with the fall of the Western Roman Empire.[140] Under the last emperors of the Constantinian dynasty and the Valentinianic dynasty, Rome lost decisive battles against the Sasanian Empire and Germanic barbarians: in 363, emperor Julian the Apostate was killed in the Battle of Samarra, against the Persians and the Battle of Adrianople cost the life of emperor Valens (364–378); the victorious Goths were never expelled from the Empire nor assimilated.[141] The next emperor, Theodosius I (379–395), gave even more force to the Christian faith, and after his death, the Empire was divided into the Eastern Roman Empire, ruled by Arcadius and the Western Roman Empire, commanded by Honorius, both of which were Theodosius' sons.[citation needed]

Ending invasions on Roman Empire between AD 100–500. Visigoths entering Athens. The Sack of Rome by the Barbarians in 410 by Joseph-Noël Sylvestre.

The situation became more critical in 408, after the death of Stilicho, a general who tried to reunite the Empire and repel barbarian invasion in the early years of the 5th century. The professional field army collapsed. In 410, the Theodosian dynasty saw the Visigoths sack Rome.[142] During the 5th century, the Western Empire experienced a significant reduction of its territory. The Vandals conquered North Africa, the Visigoths claimed the southern part of Gaul, Gallaecia was taken by the Suebi, Britannia was abandoned by the central government, and the Empire suffered further from the invasions of Attila, chief of the Huns.[143][144][145][146][147][148] General Orestes refused to meet the demands of the barbarian "allies" who now formed the army, and tried to expel them from Italy. Unhappy with this, their chieftain Odoacer defeated and killed Orestes, invaded Ravenna and dethroned Romulus Augustus, son of Orestes. This event of 476, usually marks the end of Classical antiquity and beginning of the Middle Ages.[149][150] The Roman noble and former emperor Julius Nepos continued to rule as emperor from Dalmatia even after the deposition of Romulus Augustus until his death in 480. Some historians consider him to be the last emperor of the Western Empire instead of Romulus Augustus.[151]

After some 1200 years of independence and nearly 700 years as a great power, the rule of Rome in the West ended.[152] Various reasons for Rome's fall have been proposed ever since, including loss of Republicanism, moral decay, military tyranny, class war, slavery, economic stagnation, environmental change, disease, the decline of the Roman race, as well as the inevitable ebb and flow that all civilizations experience. At the time many pagans argued that Christianity and the decline of traditional Roman religion were responsible; some rationalist thinkers of the modern era attribute the fall to a change from a martial to a more pacifist religion that lessened the number of available soldiers; while Christians such as Augustine of Hippo argued that the sinful nature of Roman society itself was to blame.[153]

The Eastern Empire had a different fate. It survived for almost 1000 years after the fall of its Western counterpart and became the most stable Christian realm during the Middle Ages. During the 6th century, Justinian reconquered the Italian peninsula from the Ostrogoths, North Africa from the Vandals, and southern Hispania from the Visigoths. But within a few years of Justinian's death, Byzantine possessions in Italy were greatly reduced by the Lombards who settled in the peninsula.[154] In the east, partially due to the weakening effect of the Plague of Justinian, the Byzantines were threatened by the rise of Islam. Its followers rapidly brought about the conquest of the Levant, the conquest of Armenia and the conquest of Egypt during the Arab–Byzantine wars, and soon presented a direct threat to Constantinople.[155][156] In the following century, the Arabs also captured southern Italy and Sicily.[157] On the west, Slavic populations were also able to penetrate deep into the Balkans.

The Byzantines, however, managed to stop further Islamic expansion into their lands during the 8th century and, beginning in the 9th century, reclaimed parts of the conquered lands.[155][158] In 1000 AD, the Eastern Empire was at its height: Basil II reconquered Bulgaria and Armenia, and culture and trade flourished.[159] However, soon after, this expansion was abruptly stopped in 1071 with the Byzantine defeat in the Battle of Manzikert. The aftermath of this battle sent the empire into a protracted period of decline. Two decades of internal strife and Turkic invasions ultimately led Emperor Alexios I Komnenos to send a call for help to the Western European kingdoms in 1095.[155] The West responded with the Crusades, eventually resulting in the Sack of Constantinople by participants of the Fourth Crusade. The conquest of Constantinople in 1204 fragmented what remained of the Empire into successor states; the ultimate victor was the Empire of Nicaea.[160] After the recapture of Constantinople by Imperial forces, the Empire was little more than a Greek state confined to the Aegean coast. The Byzantine Empire collapsed when Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople on 29 May, 1453.[161]

Society

The Roman Forum, the political, economic, cultural, and religious center of the city during the Republic and later Empire

The imperial city of Rome was the largest urban center in the empire, with a population variously estimated from 450,000 to close to one million.[162][163][164] The public spaces in Rome resounded with such a din of hooves and clatter of iron chariot wheels that Julius Caesar had once proposed a ban on chariot traffic during the day. Historical estimates show that around 20 percent of the population under jurisdiction of ancient Rome (25–40%, depending on the standards used, in Roman Italy)[165] lived in innumerable urban centers, with population of 10,000 and more and several military settlements, a very high rate of urbanization by pre-industrial standards. Most of those centers had a forum, temples, and other buildings similar to Rome's. Average life expectancy was about 28.[166][timeframe?]

Law

The roots of the legal principles and practices of the ancient Romans may be traced to the Law of the Twelve Tables promulgated in 449 BC and to the codification of law issued by order of Emperor Justinian I around 530 AD (see Corpus Juris Civilis). Roman law as preserved in Justinian's codes continued into the Byzantine Empire, and formed the basis of similar codifications in continental Western Europe. Roman law continued, in a broader sense, to be applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 17th century.

The major divisions of the law of ancient Rome, as contained within the Justinian and Theodosian law codes, consisted of Ius Civile, Ius Gentium, and Ius Naturale. The Ius Civile ("Citizen Law") was the body of common laws that applied to Roman citizens.[167] The Praetores Urbani (sg. Praetor Urbanus) were the people who had jurisdiction over cases involving citizens. The Ius Gentium ("Law of nations") was the body of common laws that applied to foreigners, and their dealings with Roman citizens.[168] The Praetores Peregrini (sg. Praetor Peregrinus) were the people who had jurisdiction over cases involving citizens and foreigners. Ius Naturale encompassed natural law, the body of laws that were considered common to all beings.

Class structure

The Patrician Torlonia bust of Cato the Elder, 1st century BC
The Orator, c. 100 BC, an Etrusco-Roman bronze statue depicting Aule Metele (Latin: Aulus Metellus), an Etruscan man wearing a Roman toga while engaged in rhetoric; the statue features an inscription in the Etruscan language

Roman society is largely viewed as hierarchical, with slaves (servi) at the bottom, freedmen (liberti) above them, and free-born citizens (cives) at the top. Free citizens were also divided by class. The broadest, and earliest, division was between the patricians, who could trace their ancestry to one of the 100 Patriarchs at the founding of the city, and the plebeians, who could not. This became less important in the later Republic, as some plebeian families became wealthy and entered politics, and some patrician families fell economically. Anyone, patrician or plebeian, who could count a consul as his ancestor was a noble (nobilis); a man who was the first of his family to hold the consulship, such as Marius or Cicero, was known as a novus homo ("new man") and ennobled his descendants. Patrician ancestry, however, still conferred considerable prestige, and many religious offices remained restricted to patricians.

A class division originally based on military service became more important. Membership of these classes was determined periodically by the Censors, according to property. The wealthiest were the Senatorial class, who dominated politics and command of the army. Next came the equestrians (equites, sometimes translated "knights"), originally those who could afford a warhorse, and who formed a powerful mercantile class. Several further classes, originally based on the military equipment their members could afford, followed, with the proletarii, citizens who had no property at all, at the bottom. Before the reforms of Marius they were ineligible for military service and are often described as being just above freed slaves in wealth and prestige.

Voting power in the Republic depended on class. Citizens were enrolled in voting "tribes", but the tribes of the richer classes had fewer members than the poorer ones, all the proletarii being enrolled in a single tribe. Voting was done in class order, from top down, and stopped as soon as most of the tribes had been reached, so the poorer classes were often unable to cast their votes.

Women shared some basic rights with their male counterparts, but were not fully regarded as citizens and were thus not allowed to vote or take part in politics. At the same time the limited rights of women were gradually expanded (due to emancipation) and women reached freedom from paterfamilias, gained property rights and even had more juridical rights than their husbands, but still no voting rights, and were absent from politics.[169]

Allied foreign cities were often given the Latin Right, an intermediary level between full citizens and foreigners (peregrini), which gave their citizens rights under Roman law and allowed their leading magistrates to become full Roman citizens. While there were varying degrees of Latin rights, the main division was between those cum suffragio ("with vote"; enrolled in a Roman tribe and able to take part in the comitia tributa) and sine suffragio ("without vote"; could not take part in Roman politics). Most of Rome's Italian allies were given full citizenship after the Social War of 91–88 BC, and full Roman citizenship was extended to all free-born men in the Empire by Caracalla in 212, with the exception of the dediticii, people who had become subject to Rome through surrender in war, and freed slaves.[124]

Education

In the early Republic, there were no public schools, so boys were taught to read and write by their parents, or by educated slaves, called paedagogi, usually of Greek origin.[170][171][172] The primary aim of education during this period was to train young men in agriculture, warfare, Roman traditions, and public affairs.[170] Young boys learned much about civic life by accompanying their fathers to religious and political functions, including the Senate for the sons of nobles.[171] The sons of nobles were apprenticed to a prominent political figure at the age of 16, and campaigned with the army from the age of 17 (this system was still in use among some noble families into the imperial era).[171] Educational practices were modified after the conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms in the 3rd century BC and the resulting Greek influence, although Roman educational practices were still much different from Greek ones.[171][173] If their parents could afford it, boys and some girls at the age of 7 were sent to a private school outside the home called a ludus, where a teacher (called a litterator or a magister ludi, and often of Greek origin) taught them basic reading, writing, arithmetic, and sometimes Greek, until the age of 11.[171][172][174]

Beginning at age 12, students went to secondary schools, where the teacher (now called a grammaticus) taught them about Greek and Roman literature.[171][174] At the age of 16, some students went on to rhetoric school (where the teacher, usually Greek, was called a rhetor).[171][174] Education at this level prepared students for legal careers, and required that the students memorize the laws of Rome.[171] Pupils went to school every day, except religious festivals and market days. There were also summer holidays.

Government

Initially, Rome was ruled by kings, who were elected from each of Rome's major tribes in turn.[175] The exact nature of the king's power is uncertain. He may have held near-absolute power, or may also have merely been the chief executive of the Senate and the people. At least in military matters, the king's authority (Imperium) was likely absolute. He was also the head of the state religion. In addition to the authority of the King, there were three administrative assemblies: the Senate, which acted as an advisory body for the King; the Comitia Curiata, which could endorse and ratify laws suggested by the King; and the Comitia Calata, which was an assembly of the priestly college that could assemble the people to bear witness to certain acts, hear proclamations, and declare the feast and holiday schedule for the next month.

Representation of a sitting of the Roman Senate: Cicero attacks Catilina, from a 19th-century fresco

The class struggles of the Roman Republic resulted in an unusual mixture of democracy and oligarchy. The word republic comes from the Latin res publica, which literally translates to "public business". Roman laws traditionally could only be passed by a vote of the Popular assembly (Comitia Tributa). Likewise, candidates for public positions had to run for election by the people. However, the Roman Senate represented an oligarchic institution, which acted as an advisory body.

In the Republic, the Senate held actual authority (auctoritas), but no real legislative power; it was technically only an advisory council. However, as the Senators were individually very influential, it was difficult to accomplish anything against the collective will of the Senate. New Senators were chosen from among the most accomplished patricians by Censors (Censura), who could also remove a Senator from his office if he was found "morally corrupt"; a charge that could include bribery or, as under Cato the Elder, embracing one's wife in public. Later, under the reforms of the dictator Sulla, Quaestors were made automatic members of the Senate, though most of his reforms did not survive.

The Republic had no fixed bureaucracy, and collected taxes through the practice of tax farming. Government positions such as quaestor, aedile, or praefect were funded by the office-holder. To prevent any citizen from gaining too much power, new magistrates were elected annually and had to share power with a colleague. For example, under normal conditions, the highest authority was held by two consuls. In an emergency, a temporary dictator could be appointed. Throughout the Republic, the administrative system was revised several times to comply with new demands. In the end, it proved inefficient for controlling the ever-expanding dominion of Rome, contributing to the establishment of the Roman Empire.

In the early Empire, the pretense of a republican form of government was maintained. The Roman Emperor was portrayed as only a princeps, or "first citizen", and the Senate gained legislative power and all legal authority previously held by the popular assemblies. However, the rule of the Emperors became increasingly autocratic, and the Senate was reduced to an advisory body appointed by the Emperor. The Empire did not inherit a set bureaucracy from the Republic, since the Republic did not have any permanent governmental structures apart from the Senate. The Emperor appointed assistants and advisers, but the state lacked many institutions, such as a centrally planned budget. Some historians have cited this as a significant reason for the decline of the Roman Empire.

Military

Modern replica of lorica segmentata type armor, used in conjunction with the popular chainmail after the 1st century AD
Roman tower (reconstruction) at Limes – Taunus / Germany

The early Roman army (c. 500 BC) was, like those of other contemporary city-states influenced by Greek civilization, a citizen militia that practiced hoplite tactics. It was small (the population of free men of military age was then about 9,000) and organized in five classes (in parallel to the comitia centuriata, the body of citizens organized politically), with three providing hoplites and two providing light infantry. The early Roman army was tactically limited and its stance during this period was essentially defensive.[176][177][178]

By the 3rd century BC, the Romans abandoned the hoplite formation in favor of a more flexible system in which smaller groups of 120 (or sometimes 60) men called maniples could maneuver more independently on the battlefield. Thirty maniples arranged in three lines with supporting troops constituted a legion, totalling between 4,000 and 5,000 men.[176][177]

The early Republican legion consisted of five sections, each of which was equipped differently and had different places in formation: the three lines of manipular heavy infantry (hastati, principes and triarii), a force of light infantry (velites), and the cavalry (equites). With the new organization came a new orientation toward the offensive and a much more aggressive posture toward adjoining city-states.[176][177]

At nominal full strength, an early Republican legion included 4,000 to 5,000 men: 3,600 to 4,800 heavy infantry, several hundred light infantry, and several hundred cavalrymen.[176][179][180] Legions were often significantly understrength from recruitment failures or following periods of active service due to accidents, battle casualties, disease and desertion. During the Civil War, Pompey's legions in the east were at full strength because they were recently recruited, while Caesar's legions were often well below nominal strength after long active service in Gaul. This pattern also held true for auxiliary forces.[181][182]

Until the late Republican period, the typical legionary was a property-owning citizen farmer from a rural area (an adsiduus) who served for particular (often annual) campaigns,[183] and who supplied his own equipment and, in the case of equites, his own mount. Harris suggests that down to 200 BC, the average rural farmer (who survived) might participate in six or seven campaigns. Freedmen and slaves (wherever resident) and urban citizens did not serve except in rare emergencies.[184]

After 200 BC, economic conditions in rural areas deteriorated as manpower needs increased, so that the property qualifications for service were gradually reduced. Beginning with Gaius Marius in 107 BC, citizens without property and some urban-dwelling citizens (proletarii) were enlisted and provided with equipment, although most legionaries continued to come from rural areas. Terms of service became continuous and long—up to twenty years if emergencies required although six- or seven-year terms were more typical.[185]

Beginning in the 3rd century BC, legionaries were paid stipendium (amounts are disputed but Caesar famously "doubled" payments to his troops to 225 denarii a year), could anticipate booty and donatives (distributions of plunder by commanders) from successful campaigns and, beginning at the time of Marius, often were granted allotments of land upon retirement.[176][186] Cavalry and light infantry attached to a legion (the auxilia) were often recruited in the areas where the legion served. Caesar formed a legion, the Fifth Alaudae, from non-citizens in Transalpine Gaul to serve in his campaigns in Gaul.[187] By the time of Caesar Augustus, the ideal of the citizen-soldier had been abandoned and the legions had become fully professional. Legionaries received 900 sesterces a year and could expect 12,000 sesterces on retirement.[188]

At the end of the Civil War, Augustus reorganized Roman military forces, discharging soldiers and disbanding legions. He retained 28 legions, distributed through the provinces of the Empire.[189] During the Principate, the tactical organization of the Army continued to evolve. The auxilia remained independent cohorts, and legionary troops often operated as groups of cohorts rather than as full legions. A new versatile type of unit—the cohortes equitatae—combined cavalry and legionaries in a single formation. They could be stationed at garrisons or outposts and could fight on their own as balanced small forces or combine with other similar units as a larger legion-sized force. This increase in organizational flexibility helped ensure the long-term success of Roman military forces.[190]

The Emperor Gallienus (253–268 AD) began a reorganization that created the last military structure of the late Empire. Withdrawing some legionaries from the fixed bases on the border, Gallienus created mobile forces (the Comitatenses or field armies) and stationed them behind and at some distance from the borders as a strategic reserve. The border troops (limitanei) stationed at fixed bases continued to be the first line of defense. The basic unit of the field army was the "regiment", legiones or auxilia for infantry and vexellationes for cavalry. Evidence suggests that nominal strengths may have been 1,200 men for infantry regiments and 600 for cavalry, although many records show lower actual troop levels (800 and 400).[191]

Many infantry and cavalry regiments operated in pairs under the command of a comes. In addition to Roman troops, the field armies included regiments of "barbarians" recruited from allied tribes and known as foederati. By 400 AD, foederati regiments had become permanently established units of the Roman army, paid and equipped by the Empire, led by a Roman tribune and used just as Roman units were used. In addition to the foederati, the Empire also used groups of barbarians to fight along with the legions as "allies" without integration into the field armies. Under the command of the senior Roman general present, they were led at lower levels by their own officers.[191]

Military leadership evolved over the course of the history of Rome. Under the monarchy, the hoplite armies were led by the kings of Rome. During the early and middle Roman Republic, military forces were under the command of one of the two elected consuls for the year. During the later Republic, members of the Roman Senatorial elite, as part of the normal sequence of elected public offices known as the cursus honorum, would have served first as quaestor (often posted as deputies to field commanders), then as praetor.[192][193] Julius Caesar's most talented, effective and reliable subordinate in Gaul, Titus Labienus, was recommended to him by Pompey.[194]

Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus, c. 122 BC; the altar shows two Roman infantrymen equipped with long scuta and a cavalryman with his horse. All are shown wearing chain mail armour.

Following the end of a term as praetor or consul, a Senator might be appointed by the Senate as a propraetor or proconsul (depending on the highest office held before) to govern a foreign province. More junior officers (down to but not including the level of centurion) were selected by their commanders from their own clientelae or those recommended by political allies among the Senatorial elite.[192]

Under Augustus, whose most important political priority was to place the military under a permanent and unitary command, the Emperor was the legal commander of each legion but exercised that command through a legatus (legate) he appointed from the Senatorial elite. In a province with a single legion, the legate commanded the legion (legatus legionis) and also served as provincial governor, while in a province with more than one legion, each legion was commanded by a legate and the legates were commanded by the provincial governor (also a legate but of higher rank).[195]

During the later stages of the Imperial period (beginning perhaps with Diocletian), the Augustan model was abandoned. Provincial governors were stripped of military authority, and command of the armies in a group of provinces was given to generals (duces) appointed by the Emperor. These were no longer members of the Roman elite but men who came up through the ranks and had seen much practical soldiering. With increasing frequency, these men attempted (sometimes successfully) to usurp the positions of the Emperors who had appointed them. Decreased resources, increasing political chaos and civil war eventually left the Western Empire vulnerable to attack and takeover by neighboring barbarian peoples.[196]

Less is known about the Roman navy than the Roman army. Prior to the middle of the 3rd century BC, officials known as duumviri navales commanded a fleet of twenty ships used mainly to control piracy. This fleet was given up in 278 AD and replaced by allied forces. The First Punic War required that Rome build large fleets, and it did so largely with the assistance of and financing from allies. This reliance on allies continued to the end of the Roman Republic. The quinquereme was the main warship on both sides of the Punic Wars and remained the mainstay of Roman naval forces until replaced by the time of Caesar Augustus by lighter and more maneuverable vessels.[197]

As compared with a trireme, the quinquereme permitted the use of a mix of experienced and inexperienced crewmen (an advantage for a primarily land-based power), and its lesser maneuverability permitted the Romans to adopt and perfect boarding tactics using a troop of about 40 marines in lieu of the ram. Ships were commanded by a navarch, a rank equal to a centurion, who was usually not a citizen. Potter suggests that because the fleet was dominated by non-Romans, the navy was considered non-Roman and allowed to atrophy in times of peace.[197]

Information suggests that by the time of the late Empire (350 AD), the Roman navy comprised several fleets including warships and merchant vessels for transportation and supply. Warships were oared sailing galleys with three to five banks of oarsmen. Fleet bases included such ports as Ravenna, Arles, Aquilea, Misenum and the mouth of the Somme River in the West and Alexandria and Rhodes in the East. Flotillas of small river craft (classes) were part of the limitanei (border troops) during this period, based at fortified river harbors along the Rhine and the Danube. That prominent generals commanded both armies and fleets suggests that naval forces were treated as auxiliaries to the army and not as an independent service. The details of command structure and fleet strengths during this period are not well known, although fleets were commanded by prefects.[198]

Economy

Night view of Trajan's Market, built by Apollodorus of Damascus

Ancient Rome commanded a vast area of land, with tremendous natural and human resources. As such, Rome's economy remained focused on farming and trade. Agricultural free trade changed the Italian landscape, and by the 1st century BC, vast grape and olive estates had supplanted the yeoman farmers, who were unable to match the imported grain price. The annexation of Egypt, Sicily and Tunisia in North Africa provided a continuous supply of grains. In turn, olive oil and wine were Italy's main exports. Two-tier crop rotation was practiced, but farm productivity was low, around 1 ton per hectare.

Industrial and manufacturing activities were smaller. The largest such activities were the mining and quarrying of stones, which provided basic construction materials for the buildings of that period. In manufacturing, production was on a relatively small scale, and generally consisted of workshops and small factories that employed at most dozens of workers. However, some brick factories employed hundreds of workers.

The economy of the early Republic was largely based on smallholding and paid labor. However, foreign wars and conquests made slaves increasingly cheap and plentiful, and by the late Republic, the economy was largely dependent on slave labor for both skilled and unskilled work. Slaves are estimated to have constituted around 20% of the Roman Empire's population at this time and 40% in the city of Rome. Only in the Roman Empire, when the conquests stopped and the prices of slaves increased, did hired labor become more economical than slave ownership.

Although barter was used in ancient Rome, and often used in tax collection, Rome had a very developed coinage system, with brass, bronze, and precious metal coins in circulation throughout the Empire and beyond—some have even been discovered in India. Before the 3rd century BC, copper was traded by weight, measured in unmarked lumps, across central Italy. The original copper coins (as) had a face value of one Roman pound of copper, but weighed less. Thus, Roman money's utility as a unit of exchange consistently exceeded its intrinsic value as metal. After Nero began debasing the silver denarius, its legal value was an estimated one-third greater than its intrinsic value.

Horses were expensive and other pack animals were slower. Mass trade on the Roman roads connected military posts, where Roman markets were centered.[199] These roads were designed for wheels.[200] As a result, there was transport of commodities between Roman regions, but increased with the rise of Roman maritime trade in the 2nd century BC. During that period, a trading vessel took less than a month to complete a trip from Gades to Alexandria via Ostia, spanning the entire length of the Mediterranean.[108] Transport by sea was around 60 times cheaper than by land, so the volume for such trips was much larger.

Some economists consider the Roman Empire a market economy, similar in its degree of capitalistic practices to 17th century Netherlands and 18th century England.[201]

Family

A gold glass portrait of a family from Roman Egypt. The Greek inscription on the medallion may indicate either the name of the artist or the pater familias who is absent in the portrait.[202]

The basic units of Roman society were households and families.[168] Households included the head (usually the father) of the household, pater familias (father of the family), his wife, children, and other relatives. In the upper classes, slaves and servants were also part of the household.[168] The power of the head of the household was supreme (patria potestas, "father's power") over those living with him: He could force marriage (usually for money) and divorce, sell his children into slavery, claim his dependents' property as his own, and even had the right to punish or kill family members (though this last right apparently ceased to be exercised after the 1st century BC).[203]

Patria potestas even extended over adult sons with their own households: A man was not considered a paterfamilias, nor could he truly hold property, while his own father lived.[203][204] During the early period of Rome's history, a daughter, when she married, fell under the control (manus) of the paterfamilias of her husband's household, although by the late Republic this fell out of fashion, as a woman could choose to continue recognizing her father's family as her true family.[205] However, as Romans reckoned descent through the male line, any children she had belonged to her husband's family.[206]

Little affection was shown for the children of Rome. The mother or an elderly relative often raised both boys and girls. Unwanted children were often sold as slaves.[207] Children might have waited on tables for the family, but they could not have participated in the conversation.

In noble families a Greek nurse usually taught the children Latin and Greek. Their father taught the boys how to swim and ride, although he sometimes hired a slave to teach them instead. At seven, a boy began his education. Having no school building, classes were held on a rooftop (if dark, the boy had to carry a lantern to school). Wax-covered boards were used as paper, papyrus, and parchment were too expensive—or he could just write in the sand. A loaf of bread to be eaten was also carried.[208]

Groups of related households formed a family (gens). Families were based on blood ties or adoption, but were also political and economic alliances. Especially during the Roman Republic, some powerful families, or Gentes Maiores, came to dominate political life.

In ancient Rome, marriage was often regarded more as a financial and political alliance than as a romantic association, especially in the upper classes (see marriage in ancient Rome). Fathers usually began seeking husbands for their daughters when these reached an age between twelve and fourteen. The husband was usually older than the bride. While upper-class girls married very young, there is evidence that lower-class women often married in their late teens or early 20s.

Culture

The seven hills of Rome

Life in ancient Rome revolved around the city of Rome, located on seven hills. The city had a vast number of monumental structures like the Colosseum, the Forum of Trajan and the Pantheon. It had theatres, gymnasiums, marketplaces, functional sewers, bath complexes complete with libraries and shops, and fountains with fresh drinking water supplied by hundreds of miles of aqueducts. Throughout the territory under the control of ancient Rome, residential architecture ranged from modest houses to country villas.

In the capital city of Rome, there were imperial residences on the elegant Palatine Hill, from which the word palace derives. The low Plebeian and middle Equestrian classes lived in the city center, packed into apartments, or Insulae, which were almost like modern ghettos. These areas, often built by upper class property owners to rent, were often centred upon collegia or taberna. These people, provided with a free supply of grain, and entertained by gladiatorial games, were enrolled as clients of patrons among the upper class Patricians, whose assistance they sought and whose interests they upheld.

Language

Roman fresco of a blond maiden reading a text, Pompeian Fourth Style (60–79 AD), Pompeii, Italy

The native language of the Romans was Latin, an Italic language the grammar of which relies little on word order, conveying meaning through a system of affixes attached to word stems.[209] Its alphabet was based on the Etruscan alphabet, which was in turn based on the Greek alphabet.[210] Although surviving Latin literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin, an artificial and highly stylized and polished literary language from the 1st century BC, the spoken language of the Roman Empire was Vulgar Latin, which significantly differed from Classical Latin in grammar and vocabulary, and eventually in pronunciation.[211] Speakers of Latin could understand both until the 7th century when spoken Latin began to diverge so much that 'Classical' or 'Good Latin' had to be learned as a second language[212]

While Latin remained the main written language of the Roman Empire, Greek came to be the language spoken by the well-educated elite, as most of the literature studied by Romans was written in Greek. In the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which later became the Byzantine Empire, Latin was never able to replace Greek, and after the death of Justinian, Greek became the official language of the Byzantine government.[213] The expansion of the Roman Empire spread Latin throughout Europe, and Vulgar Latin evolved into dialects in different locations, gradually shifting into many distinct Romance languages.

Religion

Punishment of Ixion: in the center is Mercury holding the caduceus and on the right Juno sits on her throne. Behind her Iris stands and gestures. On the left is Vulcan (blond figure) standing behind the wheel, manning it, with Ixion already tied to it. Nephele sits at Mercury's feet; a Roman fresco from the eastern wall of the triclinium in the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Fourth Style (60–79 AD).

Archaic Roman religion, at least concerning the gods, was made up not of written narratives, but rather of complex interrelations between gods and humans.[214] Unlike in Greek mythology, the gods were not personified, but were vaguely defined sacred spirits called numina. Romans also believed that every person, place or thing had its own genius, or divine soul. During the Roman Republic, Roman religion was organized under a strict system of priestly offices, which were held by men of senatorial rank. The College of Pontifices was uppermost body in this hierarchy, and its chief priest, the Pontifex Maximus, was the head of the state religion. Flamens took care of the cults of various gods, while augurs were trusted with taking the auspices. The sacred king took on the religious responsibilities of the deposed kings. In the Roman Empire, emperors were deified,[215][216] and the formalized imperial cult became increasingly prominent.

As contact with the Greeks increased, the old Roman gods became increasingly associated with Greek gods.[217] Thus, Jupiter was perceived to be the same deity as Zeus, Mars became associated with Ares, and Neptune with Poseidon. The Roman gods also assumed the attributes and mythologies of these Greek gods. Under the Empire, the Romans absorbed the mythologies of their conquered subjects, often leading to situations in which the temples and priests of traditional Italian deities existed side by side with those of foreign gods.[218]

Beginning with Emperor Nero in the 1st century AD, Roman official policy towards Christianity was negative, and at some points, simply being a Christian could be punishable by death. Under Emperor Diocletian, the persecution of Christians reached its peak. However, it became an officially supported religion in the Roman state under Diocletian's successor, Constantine I, with the signing of the Edict of Milan in 313, and quickly became dominant. All religions except Christianity were prohibited in 391 AD by an edict of Emperor Theodosius I.[219]

Ethics and morality

Like many ancient cultures, concepts of ethics and morality, while sharing some commonalities with modern society, differed greatly in several important ways. Because ancient civilizations like Rome were under constant threat of attack from marauding tribes, their culture was necessarily militaristic with martial skills being a prized attribute.[220] Whereas modern societies consider compassion a virtue, Roman society considered compassion a vice, a moral defect. Indeed, one of the primary purposes of the gladiatorial games was to inoculate Roman citizens from this weakness.[221][220][222] Romans instead prized virtues such as courage and conviction (virtus), a sense of duty to one's people, moderation and avoiding excess (moderatio), forgiveness and understanding (clementia), fairness (severitas), and loyalty (pietas).[223]

Contrary to popular descriptions, Roman society had well-established and restrictive norms related to sexuality, though as with many societies, the lion's share of the responsibilities fell on women. Women were generally expected to be monogamous having only a single husband during their life (univira), though this was much less regarded by the elite, especially under the empire. Women were expected to be modest in public avoiding any provocative appearance and to demonstrate absolute fidelity to their husbands (pudicitia). Indeed, wearing a veil was a common expectation to preserve modesty. Sex outside of marriage was generally frowned upon for men and women and indeed was made illegal during the imperial period.[224] Nevertheless, prostitution was seen entirely differently and indeed was an accepted and regulated practice.[225]

Art, music and literature

Woman playing a kithara, from the Villa Boscoreale, 40–30 BC
Frescoes from the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii, Italy, Roman artwork dated to the mid-1st century BC

Roman painting styles show Greek influences, and surviving examples are primarily frescoes used to adorn the walls and ceilings of country villas, though Roman literature includes mentions of paintings on wood, ivory, and other materials.[226][227] Several examples of Roman painting have been found at Pompeii, and from these art historians divide the history of Roman painting into four periods. The first style of Roman painting was practiced from the early 2nd century BC to the early- or mid-1st century BC. It was mainly composed of imitations of marble and masonry, though sometimes including depictions of mythological characters.

The second style of Roman painting began during the early 1st century BC, and attempted to depict realistically three-dimensional architectural features and landscapes. The third style occurred during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), and rejected the realism of the second style in favor of simple ornamentation. A small architectural scene, landscape, or abstract design was placed in the center with a monochrome background. The fourth style, which began in the 1st century AD, depicted scenes from mythology, while retaining architectural details and abstract patterns.

Portrait sculpture during the period[which?] utilized youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism. During the Antonine and Severan periods, ornate hair and bearding, with deep cutting and drilling, became popular. Advancements were also made in relief sculptures, usually depicting Roman victories.

Latin literature was, from its start, influenced heavily by Greek authors. Some of the earliest extant works are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome. As the Republic expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy.

Roman music was largely based on Greek music, and played an important part in many aspects of Roman life.[228] In the Roman military, musical instruments such as the tuba (a long trumpet) or the cornu (similar to a French horn) were used to give various commands, while the bucina (possibly a trumpet or horn) and the lituus (probably an elongated J-shaped instrument), were used in ceremonial capacities.[229] Music was used in the amphitheaters between fights and in the odea, and in these settings is known to have featured the cornu and the hydraulis (a type of water organ).[230]

Most religious rituals featured musical performances, with tibiae (double pipes) at sacrifices, cymbals and Tambourines at orgiastic cults, and rattles and hymns across the spectrum.[231] Some music historians believe that music was used at almost all public ceremonies.[228] Music historians are not certain if Roman musicians made a significant contribution to the theory or practice of music.[228]

The graffiti, brothels, paintings, and sculptures found in Pompeii and Herculaneum suggest that the Romans had a sex-saturated culture.[232]

Cuisine

Ancient Roman cuisine changed over the long duration of this ancient civilization. Dietary habits were affected by the influence of Greek culture, the political changes from kingdom to republic to empire, and empire's enormous expansion, which exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques. In the beginning the differences between social classes were relatively small, but disparities evolved with the empire's growth. Men and women drank wine with their meals, a tradition that has been carried through to the present day.[233]

Games and recreation

Choregos and theater actors, from the House of the Tragic Poet, Pompeii, Italy. Naples National Archeological Museum
The "bikini girls" mosaic, showing women playing sports, from the Villa Romana del Casale, Roman province of Sicilia (Sicily), 4th century AD

The youth of Rome had several forms of athletic play and exercise, such as jumping, wrestling, boxing, and racing.[234] In the countryside, pastimes for the wealthy also included fishing and hunting.[235] The Romans also had several forms of ball playing, including one resembling handball.[234] Dice games, board games, and gamble games were popular pastimes.[234] Women did not take part in these activities. For the wealthy, dinner parties presented an opportunity for entertainment, sometimes featuring music, dancing, and poetry readings.[226] Plebeians sometimes enjoyed similar parties through clubs or associations, but for most Romans, recreational dining usually meant patronizing taverns.[226] Children entertained themselves with toys and such games as leapfrog.[235][226]

Public games were sponsored by leading Romans who wished to advertise their generosity and court popular approval; in the Imperial era, this usually meant the emperor. Several venues were developed specifically for public games. The Colisseum was built in the Imperial era to host, among other events, gladiatorial combats. These combats had begun as funeral games around the 4th century BC, and became popular spectator events in the late Republic and Empire. Gladiators had an exotic and inventive variety of arms and armour. They sometimes fought to the death, but more often to an adjudicated victory, dependent on a referee's decision. The outcome was usually in keeping with the mood of the watching crowd. Shows of exotic animals were popular in their own right; but sometimes animals were pitted against human beings, either armed professionals or unarmed criminals who had been condemned to a spectacular and theatrical public death in the arena. Some of these encounters were based on episodes from Roman or Greek mythology.

Chariot racing was extremely popular among all classes. In Rome, these races were usually held at the Circus Maximus, which had been purpose-built for chariot and horse-racing and, as Rome's largest public place, was also used for festivals and animal shows.[236] It could seat around 150,000 people;[237] The charioteers raced in teams, identified by their colours. The track was divided lengthwise by a barrier that contained obelisks, temples, statues and lap-counters. The best seats were at the track-side, close to the action; they were reserved for Senators. Behind them sat the equites (knights), and behind the knights were the plebs (commoners) and non-citizens. The donor of the games sat on a high platform in the stands alongside images of the gods, visible to all. Large sums were bet on the outcomes of races. Some Romans offered prayers and sacrifices on behalf of their favourites, or laid curses on the opposing teams, and some aficionados were members of extremely, even violently partisan circus factions.

Technology

Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in c. 19 BC. It is a World Heritage Site.

Ancient Rome boasted impressive technological feats, using many advancements that were lost in the Middle Ages and not rivaled again until the 19th and 20th centuries. An example of this is insulated glazing, which was not invented again until the 1930s. Many practical Roman innovations were adopted from earlier Greek designs. Advancements were often divided and based on craft. Artisans guarded technologies as trade secrets.[238]

Roman civil engineering and military engineering constituted a large part of Rome's technological superiority and legacy, and contributed to the construction of hundreds of roads, bridges, aqueducts, baths, theaters and arenas. Many monuments, such as the Colosseum, Pont du Gard, and Pantheon, remain as testaments to Roman engineering and culture.

The Romans were renowned for their architecture, which is grouped with Greek traditions into "Classical architecture". Although there were many differences from Greek architecture, Rome borrowed heavily from Greece in adhering to strict, formulaic building designs and proportions. Aside from two new orders of columns, composite and Tuscan, and from the dome, which was derived from the Etruscan arch, Rome had relatively few architectural innovations until the end of the Republic.

The Appian Way (Via Appia), a road connecting the city of Rome to the southern parts of Italy, remains usable even today

In the 1st century BC, Romans started to use concrete widely. Concrete was invented in the late 3rd century BC. It was a powerful cement derived from pozzolana, and soon supplanted marble as the chief Roman building material and allowed many daring architectural forms.[239] Also in the 1st century BC, Vitruvius wrote De architectura, possibly the first complete treatise on architecture in history. In the late 1st century BC, Rome also began to use glassblowing soon after its invention in Syria about 50 BC. Mosaics took the Empire by storm after samples were retrieved during Lucius Cornelius Sulla's campaigns in Greece.

The Romans also largely built using timber, causing a rapid decline of the woodlands surrounding Rome and in much of the Apennine Mountains due to the demand for wood for construction, shipbuilding and fire. The first evidence of long-distance wood trading come from the discovery of wood planks, felled between A.D. 40 and 60, coming from the Jura mountains in northeastern France and ending up more than 1,055 miles away, in the foundations of a lavish portico that was part of a vast wealthy patrician villa, in Central Rome. It is suggested that timber, around 4 meters long, came up to Rome via the Tiber River via ships traveling across the Mediterranean Sea from the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers in what is now the city of Lyon in present-day France.[240]

With solid foundations and good drainage,[241] Roman roads were known for their durability and many segments of the Roman road system were still in use a thousand years after the fall of Rome. The construction of a vast and efficient travel network throughout the Empire dramatically increased Rome's power and influence. They allowed Roman legions to be deployed rapidly, with predictable marching times between key points of the empire, no matter the season.[242] These highways also had enormous economic significance, solidifying Rome's role as a trading crossroads—the origin of the saying "all roads lead to Rome". The Roman government maintained a system of way stations, known as the cursus publicus, that provided refreshments to couriers at regular intervals along the roads and established a system of horse relays allowing a dispatch to travel up to 80 km (50 mi) a day.

The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts to supply water to cities and industrial sites and to aid in their agriculture. By the third century, the city of Rome was supplied by 11 aqueducts with a combined length of 450 km (280 mi). Most aqueducts were constructed below the surface, with only small portions above ground supported by arches.[243][244] Sometimes, where valleys deeper than 500 m (1,640 ft) had to be crossed, inverted siphons were used to convey water across a valley.[48]

The Romans also made major advancements in sanitation. Romans were particularly famous for their public baths, called thermae, which were used for both hygienic and social purposes. Many Roman houses came to have flush toilets and indoor plumbing, and a complex sewer system, the Cloaca Maxima, was used to drain the local marshes and carry waste into the Tiber river.

Some historians have speculated that lead pipes in the sewer and plumbing systems led to widespread lead poisoning, which contributed to the decline in birth rate and general decay of Roman society leading up to the fall of Rome. However, lead content would have been minimized because the flow of water from aqueducts could not be shut off; it ran continuously through public and private outlets into the drains, and only a few taps were in use.[245] Other authors have raised similar objections to this theory, also pointing out that Roman water pipes were thickly coated with deposits that would have prevented lead from leaching into the water.[246]

Legacy

External video
video icon Ancient Rome[247] (13:47), Smarthistory at Khan Academy

Ancient Rome is the progenitor of Western civilization.[248][249][250] The customs, religion, law, technology, architecture, political system, military, literature, languages, alphabet, government and many factors and aspects of western civilization are all inherited from Roman advancements. The rediscovery of Roman culture revitalized Western civilization, playing a role in the Renaissance and the Age of Enlightenment.[251][252]

Genetics

A genetic study published in Science in November 2019 examined the genetic history of Rome from the Mesolithic up to modern times.[253] The Mesolithic inhabitants of Rome were determined to be Western Hunter Gatherers (WHGs), who were almost entirely replaced by Early European Farmers (EEFs) around 6,000 BC coming from Anatolia and the Fertile Crescent.[254] However, the authors observe that the EEF farmers studied carry a small amount of another component that is found at high levels in Neolithic Iranian farmers and Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG),[255] suggesting different or additional population contributions from Near Eastern farmers during the Neolithic transition, according to the authors.

Between 2,900 BC and 900 BC, the EEF/WHG descended population of Rome was overwhelmed by peoples with steppe ancestry largely tracing their origin to the Pontic-Caspian steppe.[254] The Iron Age Latin founding population of Rome which subsequently emerged overwhelmingly carried the paternal haplogroup R-M269,[256] and were of about 35% steppe ancestry.[254] However, two out of six individuals from Latin burials were found to be a mixture of local Iron Age ancestry and a Near Eastern population. In addition, one out of four individuals from Etruscan burials, a female, was found to be a mixture of local Iron Age ancestry and a North African population. Overall, the genetic differentiation between the Latins, Etruscans and the preceding proto-villanovan population of Italy was found to be insignificant.[255]

Examined individuals from Rome during the time of the Roman Empire (27 BCE – 300 CE) bore almost no genetic resemblance to Rome's founding populations, and were instead shifted towards the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East.[257] The Imperial population of Rome was found to have been extremely diverse, with barely any of the examined individuals being of primarily European ancestry.[258] It was suggested that the large population size and the presence of megacities in the east, such as Athens, Antioch, and Alexandria, may have driven a net flow of people from east to west during antiquity; in addition, eastern ancestry could have reached Rome also through Greek, Phoenician, and Punic diasporas that were established through colonies across the Mediterranean prior to Roman Imperial expansion.[259] During late antiquity, Rome's population was drastically reduced as a result of political instability, epidemics and economic changes. Repeated invasions of barbarians brought European ancestry back into Rome, resulting in the loss of genetic link to the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East.[258] By the Middle Ages, the people of Rome again genetically resembled European populations.[258]

Historiography

Although there has been a diversity of works on ancient Roman history, many of them are lost. As a result of this loss, there are gaps in Roman history, which are filled by unreliable works, such as the Historia Augusta and other books from obscure authors. However, there remains a number of reliable accounts of Roman history.

In Roman times

The first historians used their works for the lauding of Roman culture and customs. By the end of Republic, some historians distorted their histories to flatter their patrons—especially at the time of Marius's and Sulla's clash.[260] Caesar wrote his own histories to make a complete account of his military campaigns in Gaul and during the Civil War.

In the Empire, the biographies of famous men and early emperors flourished, examples being The Twelve Caesars of Suetonius, and Plutarch's Parallel Lives. Other major works of Imperial times were that of Livy and Tacitus.

  • Polybius – The Histories
  • Sallust – Bellum Catilinae and Bellum Jugurthinum
  • Julius Caesar – De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civili
  • Livy – Ab urbe condita
  • Dionysius of Halicarnassus – Roman Antiquities
  • Pliny the Elder – Naturalis Historia
  • Josephus – The Jewish War
  • Suetonius – The Twelve Caesars (De Vita Caesarum)
  • Tacitus – Annales and Histories
  • Plutarch – Parallel Lives (a series of biographies of famous Roman and Greek men)
  • Cassius Dio – Historia Romana
  • Herodian – History of the Roman Empire since Marcus Aurelius
  • Ammianus Marcellinus – Res Gestae

In modern times

Interest in studying, and even idealizing, ancient Rome became prevalent during the Italian Renaissance, and continues until the present day. Charles Montesquieu wrote a work Reflections on the Causes of the Grandeur and Declension of the Romans. The first major work was The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, which encompassed the Roman civilization from the end of the 2nd century to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453.[261] Like Montesquieu, Gibbon paid tribute to the virtue of Roman citizens. Barthold Georg Niebuhr was a founder of the examination of ancient Roman history and wrote The Roman History, tracing the period until the First Punic war. Niebuhr tried to determine the way the Roman tradition evolved. According to him, Romans, like other people, had an historical ethos preserved mainly in the noble families.

During the Napoleonic period a work titled The History of Romans by Victor Duruy appeared. It highlighted the Caesarean period popular at the time. History of Rome, Roman constitutional law and Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, all by Theodor Mommsen,[262] became very important milestones. Later the work Greatness and Decline of Rome by Guglielmo Ferrero was published. The Russian work Очерки по истории римского землевладения, преимущественно в эпоху Империи (The Outlines on Roman Landownership History, Mainly During the Empire) by Ivan Grevs contained information on the economy of Pomponius Atticus, one of the largest landowners at the end of the Republic.

  • Edward Gibbon (1737–1794) – The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • John Bagnall Bury (1861–1927) – History of the Later Roman Empire
  • Michael Grant (1914–2004) – The Roman World[263]
  • Barbara Levick (born 1932) – Claudius[264]
  • Barthold Georg Niebuhr (1776–1831)
  • Michael Rostovtzeff (1870–1952)
  • Howard Hayes Scullard (1903–1983) – The History of the Roman World[265]
  • Ronald Syme (1903–1989) – The Roman Revolution[266]
  • Adrian Goldsworthy (born 1969) – Caesar: The Life of a Colossus and How Rome fell[267]

See also

  • Ancient Roman architecture
  • Daqin, the Chinese name for the Roman Empire
  • Outline of classical studies
    • Outline of ancient Rome
      • Constitution of the Roman Republic
      • History of Rome
      • Timeline of Roman history
      • Legacy of the Roman Empire
      • Regions in Greco-Roman antiquity
      • Roman agriculture
      • List of ancient Romans
      • List of Roman Emperors
      • Roman culture
  • List of Roman civil wars and revolts

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
  2. ^ Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most commonly referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians to differentiate between the state in antiquity and the state during the Middle Ages.[10]

Citations

  1. ^ "ancient Rome | Facts, Maps, & History". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  2. ^ There are several different estimates for the population of the Roman Empire.
    • Scheidel (2006, p. 2) estimates 60.
    • Goldsmith (1984, p. 263) estimates 55.
    • Beloch (1886, p. 507) estimates 54.
    • Maddison (2006, pp. 51, 120) estimates 48.
    • Roman Empire Population estimates 65 (while mentioning several other estimates between 55 and 120).
    • McLynn, Frank (2011). Marcus Aurelius: Warrior, Philosopher, Emperor. Random House. p. 3. ISBN 9781446449332. [T]he most likely estimate for the reign of Marcus Aurelius is somewhere between seventy and eighty million.
    • McEvedy and Jones (1978).
    • an average of figures from different sources as listed at the US Census Bureau's Historical Estimates of World Population Archived 13 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
    • Kremer, Michael (1993). "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990" in The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108(3): 681–716.
  3. ^ a b * Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 125. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
    • Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 222. doi:10.5195/JWSR.2006.369. ISSN 1076-156X.
  4. ^ Furet, François; Ozouf, Mona, eds. (1989). A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution. Harvard University Press. p. 793. ISBN 978-0674177284.
  5. ^ Luckham, Robin; White, Gordon (1996). Democratization in the South: The Jagged Wave. Manchester University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0719049422.
  6. ^ Sellers, Mortimer N. (1994). American Republicanism: Roman Ideology in the United States Constitution. NYU Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0814780053.
  7. ^ Ferrero, Guglielmo (1909). The Greatness and Decline of Rome, Volume 2. Translated by Zimmern, Sir Alfred Eckhard; Chaytor, Henry John. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 215.
  8. ^ Hadfield, Andrew Hadfield (2005). Shakespeare and Republicanism. Cambridge University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0521816076.
  9. ^ Gray, Christopher B (1999). The Philosophy of Law: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Taylor & Francis. p. 741. ISBN 978-0815313441.
  10. ^ Cartwright, Mark (19 September 2018). "Byzantine Empire". World History Encyclopedia.
  11. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  12. ^ Cavazzi, F. "The Founding of Rome". Illustrated History of the Roman Empire. Retrieved 8 March 2007.
  13. ^ a b c d Livius, Titus (Livy) (1998). The Rise of Rome, Books 1–5. Translated by Luce, T.J. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics. pp. 8–11. ISBN 978-0-19-282296-3.
  14. ^ a b Durant, Will; Durant, Ariel (1944). The Story of Civilization – Volume III: Caesar and Christ. Simon and Schuster, Inc. pp. 12–14. ISBN 978-1567310238.
  15. ^ Roggen, Hesse, Haastrup, Omnibus I, H. Aschehoug & Co 1996
  16. ^ Myths and Legends- Rome, the Wolf, and Mars. Retrieved 8 March 2007.
  17. ^ Mellor, Ronald and McGee Marni, The Ancient Roman World p. 15 (Cited 15 March 2009)
  18. ^ Matyszak, Philip (2003). Chronicle of the Roman Republic. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-500-05121-4.
  19. ^ Duiker, William; Spielvogel, Jackson (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  20. ^ Ancient Rome and the Roman Empire by Michael Kerrigan. Dorling Kindersley, London: 2001. ISBN 0-7894-8153-7. p. 12.
  21. ^ Langley, Andrew and Souza, de Philip, "The Roman Times", Candle Wick Press, Massachusetts
  22. ^ Matyszak, Philip (2003). Chronicle of the Roman Republic. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-500-05121-4.
  23. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  24. ^ Hooker, Richard (6 June 1999). "Rome: The Roman Republic". Washington State University. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011.
  25. ^ Magistratus by George Long, M.A. Appearing on pp. 723–724 of A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities by William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D. Published by John Murray, London, 1875. Website, 8 December 2006. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
  26. ^ Livius, Titus (Livy) (1998). "Book II". The Rise of Rome, Books 1–5. Translated by Luce, T.J. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics. ISBN 978-0-19-282296-3.
  27. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  28. ^ These are literally Roman "libra," from which the pound is derived.
  29. ^ [1] Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Life of Camillus, XXIX, 2.
  30. ^ a b c Haywood, Richard (1971). The Ancient World. United States: David McKay Company, Inc. pp. 350–358.
  31. ^ Pyrrhus of Epirus (2) and Pyrrhus of Epirus (3) by Jona Lendering. Livius.org. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  32. ^ Bennett, Matthew; Dawson, Doyne; Field, Ron; Hawthornwaite, Philip; Loades, Mike (2016). The History of Warfare: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the History of Warfare from the Ancient World to the American Civil War. p. 61.
  33. ^ AncientRome.ru. "The Database of Ancient Art." Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  34. ^ AncientRome.ru. "Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus." Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  35. ^ [2] Cassius Dio, Roman History, XI, XLIII.
  36. ^ New historical atlas and general history By Robert Henlopen Labberton. p. 35.
  37. ^ ‹See Tfd›Caspari, Maximilian Otto Bismarck (1911). "Punic Wars § The Interval between the First and Second Wars" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 850.
  38. ^ a b c Haywood, Richard (1971). The Ancient World. United States: David McKay Company, Inc. pp. 376–393.
  39. ^ Rome: The Punic Wars by Richard Hooker. Washington State University. 6 June 1999. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
  40. ^ Bury, John Bagnell (1889). History of the Later Roman Empire. London, New York: MacMillan and Co.
  41. ^ Rome: The Conquest of the Hellenistic Empires Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine by Richard Hooker. Washington State University. 6 June 1999. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
  42. ^ Duiker, William; Spielvogel, Jackson (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. pp. 136–137. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  43. ^ Fall of the Roman Republic, 133–27 BC. Purdue University. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
  44. ^ a b Eques (Knight) by Jona Lendering. Livius.org. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
  45. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  46. ^ Tuma, Elias H. (1965). Twenty-six Centuries of Agrarian Reform: A Comparative Analysis. University of California Press. p. 34.
  47. ^ Plutarch. Life of Sulla.
  48. ^ a b c William Harrison De Puy (1893). The Encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, and general literature; the R.S. Peale reprint, with new maps and original American articles. Werner Co. p. 760.
  49. ^ Henry George Liddell (1855). A history of Rome, to the establishment of the empire. p. 305.
  50. ^ Plutarch Parallel Lives, Life of Caesar, I,2
  51. ^ Scullard, Howard Hayes (1982). From the Gracchi to Nero (5th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-02527-0. Chapters VI–VIII.
  52. ^ Julius Caesar (100–44 BC). BBC. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  53. ^ [3] Plutarch, Life of Caesar. Retrieved 1 October 2011
  54. ^ Augustus (31 BC – 14 AD) by Garrett G. Fagan. De Imperatoribus Romanis. 5 July 2004. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  55. ^ Coins of the Emperor Augustus Archived 25 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine; examples are a coin of 38 BC inscribed "Divi Iuli filius", and another of 31 BC bearing the inscription "Divi filius" (Auguste vu par lui-même et par les autres by Juliette Reid Archived 19 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine).
  56. ^ [4] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Augustus, XV.
  57. ^ [5] Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Life of Antony, II, 1.
  58. ^ Ancient Library Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 9 September 2011
  59. ^ [6] Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Life of Antony, LXXI, 3–5.
  60. ^ Augustus (63 BC – AD 14) from bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 12 March 2007.
  61. ^ Langley, Andrew and Souza, de Philip: "The Roman Times" p.14, Candle Wick Press, 1996
  62. ^ The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 BC – 68 AD). by the Department of Greek and Roman Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. October 2000. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
  63. ^ James Orr (1915). The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia. Howard-Severance Company. p. 2598.
  64. ^ Charles Phineas Sherman (1917). Roman law in the modern world. The Boston book company. p. 50.
  65. ^ [7] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Augustus, XXVII, 3.
  66. ^ Werner Eck, The Age of Augustus
  67. ^ [8] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Augustus, XVIII, 2.
  68. ^ Hugh Chisholm (1910). Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. Encyclopædia Britannica Company. p. 912.
  69. ^ [9] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Augustus, XXI, 1.
  70. ^ [10] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Augustus, XXI.
  71. ^ Duiker, William; Spielvogel, Jackson (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  72. ^ [11] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Augustus, LXIII.
  73. ^ [12] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LVII, 12.
  74. ^ a b c John Charles Tarver (1902). Tiberius, the tyrant. A. Constable. pp. 342–428. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  75. ^ Johann Jakob Herzog; John Henry Augustus Bomberger (1858). The Protestant Theological and Ecclesiastical Encyclopedia: Being a Condensed Translation of Herzog's Real Encyclopedia. Lindsay & Blakiston. p. 99.
  76. ^ The Chautauquan. M. Bailey. 1881. p. 445.
  77. ^ [13] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Caligula, LV, 3.
  78. ^ Compendium (1858). A compendium of universal history. Ancient and modern, by the author of 'Two thousand questions on the Old and New Testaments'. p. 109.
  79. ^ Sir William Smith (1890). Abaeus-Dysponteus. J. Murray. p. 776.
  80. ^ [14] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Claudius, XVII.
  81. ^ Claudius By Barbara Levick. p. 77.
  82. ^ Brief History: Brief History of Great Britain. Infobase Publishing. 2009. p. 34.
  83. ^ England Invaded. Amberley Publishing Limited. 2014. p. 27.
  84. ^ In the Name of Rome: The Men Who Won the Roman Empire. Hachette UK. 2010. p. 30.
  85. ^ "Gaius Suetonius Paulinus". 27 September 2016.
  86. ^ Making Europe: The Story of the West, Volume I to 1790. 2013. p. 162.
  87. ^ [15] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Nero, XVI.
  88. ^ [16] Tacitus, Annales, XXXVIII.
  89. ^ Nero (54–68 AD) by Herbert W. Benario. De Imperatoribus Romanis. 10 November 2006. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
  90. ^ Suetonius
  91. ^ O'Connell, Robert (1989). Of Arms and Men: A History of War, Weapons, and Aggression. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-19-505359-3.
  92. ^ Kreis, Stephen. "Augustus Caesar and the Pax Romana". The History Guide. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  93. ^ Josephus, The Wars of the Jews VI.9.3
  94. ^ [17] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Vespasian, I.
  95. ^ [18] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Vespasian, IX.
  96. ^ [19] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXVI.
  97. ^ [20] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Titus, VII, 3.
  98. ^ [21] Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Domitian, X.
  99. ^ Titus Flavius Domitianus. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  100. ^ Five Good Emperors from UNRV History. Retrieved 12 March 2007.
  101. ^ [22] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXVIII, 1.
  102. ^ [23] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXVIII, 6.
  103. ^ [24] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXVIII, 14.
  104. ^ [25] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXVIII, 13.
  105. ^ Ferdinand Gregorovius (1898). The Emperor Hadrian: A Picture of the Graeco-Roman World in His Time. Macmillan. p. 16. ISBN 9780790552286.
  106. ^ [26] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXVIII, 17–30.
  107. ^ Emperors of Rome: The Story of Imperial Rome from Julius Caesar to the Last Emperor. Hachette UK. 2014. p. 64.
  108. ^ a b Scarre, Chris (1995). The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-051329-5.
  109. ^ Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. 2006. p. 406.
  110. ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. 2005. p. 15. ISBN 9780802824165.
  111. ^ [27] Historia Augusta, Life of Hadrian.
  112. ^ [28] Historia Augusta, Life of Antoninus Pius, V, 4.
  113. ^ [29] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXXVII.
  114. ^ Past pandemics that ravaged Europe by Verity Murphy. BBC News. 7 November 2005.
  115. ^ Gibbon, Edward (1906). "Chapter I". In Bury, J.B. (ed.). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Fred de Fau and Co.
  116. ^ [30] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXXII, 36, 4.
  117. ^ Cary, Max (1967). A History of Rome Down to the Reign of Constantine (Second ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 704.
  118. ^ [31] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXXV, 13.
  119. ^ [32] Machiavelli, Il Principe, XIX (in Italian).
  120. ^ [33] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXXVI, 7.
  121. ^ [34] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXXVI, 9–12.
  122. ^ [35] Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXXVIII, 22–23.
  123. ^ [36] Historia Augusta, The Life of Caracalla, VI.
  124. ^ a b Giessen Papyrus, 40,7-9 "I grant to all the inhabitants of the Empire the Roman citizenship and no one remains outside a civitas, with the exception of the dediticii"
  125. ^ [37] Historia Augusta, The Life of Alexander Severus, LIX.
  126. ^ Skip Knox, E.L. "Crisis of the Third Century (235–285)". History of Western Civilization. Boise State University. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007.
  127. ^ a b Gibbon, Edward (1906). "Chapter X" (Online version). In Bury, J.B. (ed.). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Fred de Fau and Co.
  128. ^ [38] Historia Augusta, The Lives of the Thirty Pretenders, III et XXX.
  129. ^ [39] Historia Augusta, The Life of Aurelian, XXXII.
  130. ^ [40] Historia Augusta, The Life of Claudius, I.
  131. ^ [41] Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum, VII.
  132. ^ Joannes Zonaras, Epitome: From Diocletian to the death of Galerius
  133. ^ Diocletian (284–305 AD) by Ralph W. Mathisen. De Imperatoribus Romanis. 17 March 1997. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
  134. ^ Ward-Perkins, John Bryan (1994). Roman Imperial Architecture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05292-3.
  135. ^ [42] Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum, X–XVI.
  136. ^ Gibbon, Edward (1906). "Chapter XX". In Bury, J.B. (ed.). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Fred de Fau and Co.
  137. ^ Gibbon, Edward (1906). "Chapter XVII" (Online version). In Bury, J.B. (ed.). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Fred de Fau and Co.
  138. ^ Constantine I (306–337 AD) by Hans A. Pohlsander. De Imperatoribus Romanis. 8 January 2004. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
  139. ^ Honorius (395–423 AD) by Ralph W. Mathisen. De Imperatoribus Romanis. 2 June 1999. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  140. ^ Duiker, William; Spielvogel, Jackson (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  141. ^ Gibbon, Edward (1906). "Chapter XXVI" (Online version). In Bury, J.B. (ed.). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Fred de Fau and Co.
  142. ^ Lapham, Lewis (1997). The End of the World. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 0-312-25264-1. pp. 47–50.
  143. ^ [43] Bury, J.B.: History of the Later Roman Empire, 8, §2.
  144. ^ [44] Bury, J.B.: History of the Later Roman Empire, 6, §4.
  145. ^ [45] Bury, J.B.: History of the Later Roman Empire, 6, §3.
  146. ^ [46] Bury, J.B.: History of the Later Roman Empire, 9.
  147. ^ "The Germanic Invasions of Western Europe". University of Calgary. August 1996. Archived from the original on 12 August 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
  148. ^ Duiker, William; Spielvogel, Jackson (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  149. ^ "Roman Emperors – DIR Romulus Augustulus". www.roman-emperors.org.
  150. ^ Romulus Augustulus (475–476 AD) – Two Views by Ralph W. Mathisen and Geoffrey S. Nathan. De Imperatoribus Romanis. 26 August 1997. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
  151. ^ Mathisen, Ralph A. (8 February 1998). "Roman Emperors – DIR Nepos".
  152. ^ Durant, Will; Durant, Ariel (1944). The Story of Civilization – Volume III: Caesar and Christ. United States: Simon and Schuster, Inc. p. 670. ISBN 978-1567310238.
  153. ^ Morris Bishop, The Middle Ages, 1996. p. 8
  154. ^ Duiker, William; Spielvogel, Jackson (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  155. ^ a b c Hooker, Richard (6 June 1999). "The Byzantine Empire". Washington State University. Archived from the original on 24 February 1999.
  156. ^ Bray, R.S. (2004). Armies of Pestilence. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-227-17240-7.
  157. ^ Kreutz, Barbara M. (1996). Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1587-8.
  158. ^ Duiker, William; Spielvogel, Jackson (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  159. ^ Basil II (AD 976–1025) by Catherine Holmes. De Imperatoribus Romanis. 1 April 2003. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
  160. ^ Gibbon, Edward (1906). "Chapter LXI" (Online version). In Bury, J.B. (ed.). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Fred de Fau and Co.
  161. ^ Mehmet II by Korkut Ozgen. Theottomans.org. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
  162. ^ Duiker, William; Spielvogel, Jackson (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  163. ^ Abstract of The population of ancient Rome. by Glenn R. Storey. HighBeam Research. 1 December 1997. Retrieved 22 April 2007.
  164. ^ The Population of Rome by Whitney J. Oates. Originally published in Classical Philology. Vol. 29, No. 2 (April 1934), pp. 101–116. Retrieved 22 April 2007.
  165. ^ N.Morley, Metropolis and Hinterland (Cambridge, 1996) 174–83
  166. ^ Gawande, Atul (2014). Being Mortal. London: Profile Books. p. 32. ISBN 9781846685828.
  167. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  168. ^ a b c Duiker, William; Spielvogel, Jackson (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  169. ^ Frank Frost Abbott, Society and Politics in Ancient Rome, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009, p. 41
  170. ^ a b Lecture 13: A Brief Social History of the Roman Empire by Steven Kreis. 11 October 2006. Retrieved 2 April 2007.
  171. ^ a b c d e f g h Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  172. ^ a b Werner, Paul (1978). Life in Rome in Ancient Times. Geneva: Editions Minerva S.A. p. 31.
  173. ^ Duiker, William; Spielvogel, Jackson (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  174. ^ a b c Roman Education. Latin ExCET Preparation. Texas Classical Association, by Ginny Lindzey, September 1998. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
  175. ^ Matyszak, Philip (2003). Chronicle of the Roman Republic. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 16–42. ISBN 978-0-500-05121-4.
  176. ^ a b c d e Keegan, John (1993). A History of Warfare. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 263–264. ISBN 978-0-394-58801-8.
  177. ^ a b c Potter, David (2004). "The Roman Army and Navy". In Flower, Harriet I. (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 67–70. ISBN 978-0-521-00390-2.
  178. ^ For a discussion of hoplite tactics and their sociocultural setting, see Victor Davis Hanson, The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in Classical Greece, Alfred A. Knopf (New York 1989) ISBN 0-394-57188-6.
  179. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (1996). The Roman Army at War 100 BC–AD 00. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-19-815057-2.
  180. ^ Jo-Ann Shelton, ed., As the Romans Did: A Sourcebook in Roman Social History, Oxford University Press (New York 1998)ISBN 0-19-508974-X, pp. 245–249.
  181. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2003). The Complete Roman Army. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd. pp. 22–24, 37–38. ISBN 978-0-500-05124-5.
  182. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2008). Caesar: Life of a Colossus. Yale University Press. pp. 384, 410–411, 425–427. ISBN 978-0300126891. Another important factor discussed by Goldsworthy was absence of legionaries on detached duty.
  183. ^ Between 343 BC and 241 BC, the Roman army fought every year except for five. Oakley, Stephen P. (2004). "The Early Republic". In Flower, Harriet I. (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-521-00390-2.
  184. ^ P.A. Brunt, "Army and Land in the Roman Republic," in The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays, Oxford University Press (Oxford 1988) ISBN 0-19-814849-6, p. 253; William V. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome 327–70 BC, Oxford University Press (Oxford 1979) ISBN 0-19-814866-6, p. 44.
  185. ^ Keegan, John (1993). A History of Warfare. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 273–274. ISBN 978-0-394-58801-8.
  186. ^ Brunt, pp. 259–265; Potter, pp. 80–83.
  187. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2008). Caesar: Life of a Colossus. Yale University Press. p. 391. ISBN 978-0300126891.
  188. ^ Karl Christ, The Romans, University of California Press (Berkeley, 1984)ISBN 0-520-04566-1, pp. 74–76.
  189. ^ Mackay, Christopher S. (2004). Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 249–250. ISBN 978-0-521-80918-4. Mackay points out that the number of legions (not necessarily the number of legionaries) grew to 30 by 125 AD and 33 during the Severan period (200–235 AD).
  190. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (1996). The Roman Army at War 100 BC – AD 200. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-0-19-815057-2.
  191. ^ a b Elton, Hugh (1996). Warfare in Roman Europe AD 350–425. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 89–96. ISBN 978-0-19-815241-5.
  192. ^ a b Brennan, Correy T. (2004). "Power and Process Under the Republican 'Constitution'". In Flower, Harriet I. (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 66–68. ISBN 978-0-521-00390-2.
  193. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (1996). The Roman Army at War 100 BC – AD 200. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 121–125. ISBN 978-0-19-815057-2.
  194. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (1996). The Roman Army at War 100 BC – AD 200. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-19-815057-2.
  195. ^ Mackay, Christopher S. (2004). Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 245–252. ISBN 978-0-521-80918-4.
  196. ^ Mackay, Christopher S. (2004). Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 295–296. ISBN 978-0-521-80918-4.. Also chapters 23–24.
  197. ^ a b This paragraph is based upon Potter, pp. 76–78.
  198. ^ Elton, Hugh (1996). Warfare in Roman Europe AD 350–425. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 99–101. ISBN 978-0-19-815241-5.
  199. ^ Sabin, Philip; van Wees, Hans; Whitby, Michael, eds. (2007). The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare. Cambridge University Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0521782746.
  200. ^ Heseltine, John (2005). Roads to Rome. J. Paul Getty Museum. p. 11. ISBN 978-0711225527.
  201. ^ Temin, Peter (2001). "A Market Economy in the Early Roman Empire". Abstract Archives. Economy History Services. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010.
  202. ^ See "Masterpieces. Desiderius' Cross". Fondazione Brescia Musei. Retrieved 2 October 2016.. For a description of scholarly research on the Brescia Medallion, see Daniel Thomas Howells (2015). "A Catalogue of the Late Antique Gold Glass in the British Museum (PDF)." London: the British Museum (Arts and Humanities Research Council), p. 7. Accessed 2 October 2016. gold glass portrait (most likely by an Alexandrian Greek due to the Egyptian dialect of the inscription), dated 3rd century AD; Beckwith, John, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, Penguin History of Art (now Yale), 2nd edn. 1979, ISBN 0140560335, p. 25; Boardman, John ed., The Oxford History of Classical Art, 1993, OUP, ISBN 0198143869, pp. 338–340; Grig, Lucy, "Portraits, Pontiffs and the Christianization of Fourth-Century Rome", Papers of the British School at Rome, Vol. 72, (2004), pp. 203–230, ‹See Tfd›JSTOR 40311081, p. 207; Jás Elsner (2007). "The Changing Nature of Roman Art and the Art Historical Problem of Style," in Eva R. Hoffman (ed), Late Antique and Medieval Art of the Medieval World, 11–18. Oxford, Malden & Carlton: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-2071-5, p. 17, Figure 1.3 on p. 18.
  203. ^ a b Casson, Lionel (1998). Everyday Life in Ancient Rome. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-8018-5992-2.
  204. ^ Family Values in Ancient Rome by Richard Saller. The University of Chicago Library Digital Collections: Fathom Archive. 2001. Visited 14 April 2007.
  205. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 339. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  206. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  207. ^ Rawson, Beryl (1987). The Family in Ancient Rome: New Perspectives. Cornell University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0801494604.
  208. ^ Lifepac History & Geography, Grade 6 Unit 3, p. 28.z
  209. ^ Latin Online: Series Introduction by Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum. Linguistics Research Center. The University of Texas at Austin. 15 February 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
  210. ^ Calvert, J.B. (8 August 1999). "The Latin Alphabet". University of Denver. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007.
  211. ^ Classical Latin Supplement. p. 2. Retrieved 2 April 2007.
  212. ^ József Herman, Vulgar Latin, English translation 2000, pp. 109–114 ISBN 978-0271020013
  213. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  214. ^ Matyszak, Philip (2003). Chronicle of the Roman Republic. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-500-05121-4.
  215. ^ Edward Gibbon (1787). The history of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. printed for J.J. Tourneisen. p. 91.
  216. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge. Encyclopedia Americana Corporation. 1919. p. 644.
  217. ^ Willis, Roy (2000). World Mythology: The Illustrated Guide. Victoria: Ken Fin Books. pp. 166–168. ISBN 978-1-86458-089-1.
  218. ^ willis
  219. ^ Theodosius I (379–395 AD) by David Woods. De Imperatoribus Romanis. 2 February 1999. Retrieved 4 April 2007.
  220. ^ a b Astore, William. "Bread and Circuses in Rome and America". Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  221. ^ Annual Editions: Western Civilization. 1 (12 ed.). McGraw-Hill/Dushkin. 2002. p. 68. ... where compassion was regarded as a moral defect ...
  222. ^ Jackson, Michael Anthony (2004). Look Back to Get Ahead: Life Lessons from History's Heroes. Arcade Publishing. p. 174. ISBN 9781559707275. Gladatorial games were popular because the Romans actually believed that compassion was a vice and a weakness
  223. ^ Harvey, Brian K., ed. (2016). Daily Life in Ancient Rome: A Sourcebook. Hackett Publishing Company. pp. 21–28. ISBN 9781585107964.
  224. ^ Langlands, Rebecca (2006). Sexual Morality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–20. ISBN 9780521859431.
  225. ^ Mathew Dillon and Lynda Garland (2005). Ancient Rome: From the Early Republic to the Assassination of Julius Caesar. Taylor & Francis, 2005. p. 382. ISBN 9780415224598.
  226. ^ a b c d Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 350–352. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  227. ^ Roman Painting from Timeline of Art History. Department of Greek and Roman Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2004–10. Retrieved 22 April 2007.
  228. ^ a b c Donald Jay Grout; Claude V. Palisca (June 1988). A history of western music. Norton. ISBN 9780393956276. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  229. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  230. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 349–350. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  231. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  232. ^ Grant, Michael (2005). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. London: Phoenix Press. pp. 130–134. ISBN 978-1-898800-45-3.
  233. ^ Civitello, Linda (29 March 2011). Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470403716.
  234. ^ a b c Casson, Lionel (1998). Everyday Life in Ancient Rome. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 98–108. ISBN 978-0-8018-5992-2.
  235. ^ a b "Daily Life: Entertainment". SPQR Online. 1998. Archived from the original on 30 April 2007.
  236. ^ Circus Maximus. Encyclopedia Romana. University of Chicago. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
  237. ^ John Humphrey, Roman circuses: arenas for chariot racing, University of California Press, 1986, p. 216.
  238. ^ Ancient Roman laws protected against a person corrupting slaves to obtain secrets about the master's arts. Zeidman, Bob (2011). The Software IP Detective's Handbook: : Measurement, Comparison, and Infringement Detection (1st ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 103. ISBN 978-0137035335.
  239. ^ Nelson, Winter, Thomas (1 January 1979). "Roman Concrete: The Ascent, Summit, and Decline of an Art". Faculty Publications, Classics and Religious Studies Department.
  240. ^ Choi, Charles Q. (4 December 2019). "Muddy Find Shows How Foreign Timber Helped Build Ancient Rome." InsideScience.org. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  241. ^ "Roman road system". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  242. ^ Keegan, John (1993). A History of Warfare. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-394-58801-8.
  243. ^ Peck, Harry Thurston, ed. (1963). "Aquae Ductus". Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities. New York: Cooper Square Publishers. pp. 104–106.
  244. ^ ‹See Tfd›Murray, Alexander Stuart; Mitchell, John Malcolm (1911). "Aqueduct" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 240–244.
  245. ^ Roman Aqueducts and Water Supply by A.T. Hodge (1992)
  246. ^ Grout, James. "Lead Poisoning and Rome". University of Chicago. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  247. ^ "Ancient Rome". Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
  248. ^ Jacob Dorsey Forrest (1906). The development of western civilization: a study in ethical, economic and political evolution. The University of Chicago Press.
  249. ^ William Cunningham (1900). An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects: Mediaeval and modern times. University Press. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  250. ^ Andrew Fleming West, Value of the classics. 1917. p. 185
  251. ^ Kuno Fischer (1887). History of modern philosophy. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 85.
  252. ^ Michael Burger (2008). The Shaping of Western Civilization: From Antiquity To the Enlightenment. University of Toronto Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-55111-432-3.
  253. ^ Antonio et al. 2019, p. 1.
  254. ^ a b c Antonio et al. 2019, pp. 1-2.
  255. ^ a b Antonio, Margaret L.; Gao, Ziyue; Moots, Hannah M.; Lucci, Michaela; Candilio, Francesca; et al. (2019). "Ancient Rome: A genetic crossroads of Europe and the Mediterranean". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 366 (6466): 708–714. doi:10.1126/science.aay6826. PMC 7093155. PMID 31699931.
  256. ^ Antonio et al. 2019, Table 2 Sample Information.
  257. ^ Antonio et al. 2019, p. 4. "[C]ompared to Iron Age individuals, the Imperial population shares more alleles with early Bronze Age Jordanians... Notably, only 2 out of 48 Imperial-era individuals fall in the European cluster (C7) to which 8 out of 11 Iron Age individuals belong... [F]ew Imperial individuals (n = 2) have strong genetic affinities to western Mediterranean populations."
  258. ^ a b c Wade 2019, p. 673. "People from the city's earliest eras and from after the Western empire's decline in the fourth century C.E. genetically resembled other Western Europeans. But during the imperial period most sampled residents had Eastern Mediterranean or Middle Eastern ancestry... The study suggests the vast majority of immigrants to Rome came from the East. Of 48 individuals sampled from this period, only two showed strong genetic ties to Europe... Invading barbarians brought in more European ancestry. Rome gradually lost its strong genetic link to the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. By medieval times, city residents again genetically resembled European populations."
  259. ^ Antonio et al. 2019, pp. 3-6.
  260. ^ [47] Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Life of Marius, XI, 5–7.
  261. ^ The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 12 vols.
  262. ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Theodor Mommsen". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 24 August 2014.
  263. ^ see excerpt and text search
  264. ^ Levick, Barbara (1993). Claudius. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300058314.
  265. ^ see online edition
  266. ^ Syme, Ronald (2002). The Roman Revolution. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192803207.
  267. ^ "Dr Adrian Goldsworthy, the historian and author". Adriangoldsworthy.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.

Sources

  • Adkins, Lesley; Roy Adkins (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512332-6.
  • Antonio, Margaret L.; et al. (8 November 2019). "Ancient Rome: A genetic crossroads of Europe and the Mediterranean". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 366 (6466): 708–714. doi:10.1126/science.aay6826. PMC 7093155. PMID 31699931.
  • Cary, M. (1967). A History of Rome Down to the Reign of Constantine (2nd ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Casson, Lionel (1998). Everyday Life in Ancient Rome. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5992-2.
  • Dio, Cassius (January 2004). Dio's Rome, Volume V., Books 61–76 (AD 54–211). Retrieved 17 December 2006.
  • Duiker, William; Jackson Spielvogel (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0-534-57168-9.
  • Durant, Will (1944). The Story of Civilization, Volume III: Caesar and Christ. Simon and Schuster, Inc.
  • Elton, Hugh (1996). Warfare in Roman Europe AD 350–425. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-815241-5.
  • Flower (editor), Harriet I. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00390-2.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  • Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith (2008). Caesar: Life of a Colossus. Yale University Press
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith (1996). The Roman Army at War 100 BC – AD 200. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-815057-2.
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith (2003). The Complete Roman Army. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-500-05124-5.
  • Grant, Michael (2005). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. London: Phoenix Press. ISBN 978-1-898800-45-3.
  • Haywood, Richard (1971). The Ancient World. David McKay Company, Inc.
  • Keegan, John (1993). A History of Warfare. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-58801-8.
  • Livy. The Rise of Rome, Books 1–5, translated from Latin by T.J. Luce, 1998. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-282296-9.
  • Mackay, Christopher S. (2004). Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80918-4.
  • Matyszak, Philip (2003). Chronicle of the Roman Republic. London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-500-05121-4.
  • O'Connell, Robert (1989). Of Arms and Men: A History of War, Weapons, and Aggression. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-505359-3.
  • Scarre, Chris (September 1995). The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-051329-5.
  • Scullard, H.H. (1982). From the Gracchi to Nero. (5th edition). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-02527-0.
  • Ward-Perkins, John Bryan (1994). Roman Imperial Architecture. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05292-3.
  • Wade, Lizzie (8 November 2019). "Immigrants from the Middle East shaped Rome". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 366 (6466): 673. doi:10.1126/science.366.6466.673. PMID 31699914.
  • Werner, Paul (1978). Life in Rome in Ancient Times. translated by David Macrae. Geneva: Editions Minerva S.A.
  • Willis, Roy (2000). World Mythology: The Illustrated Guide. Collingwood, Victoria: Ken Fin Books. ISBN 978-1-86458-089-1.

Further reading

  • Coarelli, Filippo. Rome and environs: An archaeological guide. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2007.
  • Cornell, Tim J. The beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000–264 BC). London: Routledge, 1995.
  • Coulston, J. C, and Hazel Dodge, editors. Ancient Rome: The archaeology of the eternal city. Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology, 2000.
  • Forsythe, Gary. A critical history of early Rome. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.
  • Fox, Matthew. Roman historical myths: The regal period in Augustan literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Gabba, Emilio. Dionysius and the history of Archaic Rome. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
  • Holloway, R. Ross. The archaeology of early Rome and Latium. London: Routledge, 1994.
  • Keaveney, Arthur. Rome and the unification of Italy. 2nd edition. Bristol: Bristol Phoenix, 2005.
  • Kraus, Christina Shuttleworth, and A.J. Woodman. Latin historians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Mitchell, Richard E. Patricians and plebeians: The origin of the Roman state. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990.
  • Potter, T.W. Roman Italy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Raaflaub, Kurt A., editors. Social struggles in Archaic Rome: New perspectives on the conflict of the orders. 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.
  • Rosenstein, Nathan S., and Robert Morstein-Marx, editors. A companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.
  • Scheidel, Walter, Richard P Saller, and Ian Morris. The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Smith, Christopher J. Early Rome and Latium: Economy and society c. 1000–500 BC. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Stewart, Roberta. Public office in early Rome: Ritual procedure and political practice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998.
  • Woolf, Greg. Rome: An Empire's Story. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • Wyke, Maria. Projecting the Past: Ancient Rome, Cinema, and History. New York: Routledge, 1997.

External links

  • Ancient Rome resources for students from the Courtenay Middle School Library.
  • History of ancient Rome OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre Dame providing free resources including lectures, discussion questions, assignments, and exams.
  • Gallery of the Ancient Art: Ancient Rome
  • Lacus Curtius
  • Livius.Org
  • United Nations of Roma Victrix (UNRV) History
  • Water and Wastewater Systems in Imperial Rome
  • Roman DNA project